"The Two United States and the Law"


                         Howard Freeman
                          P. O. Box 364
                        Lusk, Wyo. 82225

Our forefathers,  weary of  the  oppressive  measures  that  King
George III's  government forced  upon them,  in  common  declared
their independence  from England in 1776.  They were not expected
to be  successful in  that resistance.   The  moneyed people  had
backed England  for two  major reasons.   First,  our forefathers
wanted a  rigid, written  Constitution "set  in concrete."   They
were familiar  with the  so-called Constitution  of England which
consisted  largely   of  customs,   precedents,  traditions,  and
understandings, often vague and always flexible.  They wanted the
principle of English common law, that an act done by any official
person or  law-making body beyond his or its legal competence was
simply void.   Second,  the thirteen  little colonies  desired to
base their  union on substance (gold and silver)  --  real money.
They well  knew how  the  despotic  governments  of  Europe  were
mortgaged to the hilt  --  lock, stock, and barrel, the land, the
people, everything  --  to certain wealthy men who controlled the
banks, the  currency, and all credit, who lent credit but did not
loan gold and silver!

The United  States of  America was  made up of a union of what is
now  fifty   sovereign  States,   a  three-branch   (legislative,
executive, and  judicial) Republic  known as The United States of
America, or  as termed  in this  article, the  Continental United
States.   Its citizenry  live in one of the fifty States, and its
laws are based on the Constitution, which is based on Common Law.

Less than  one hundred years after we became a nation, a loophole
was discovered  in the  Constitution by cunning lawyers in league
with the  international bankers.   They  realized that a separate
nation existed,  by the  same name,  that Congress had created in
Article I,  Section 8,  Clause 17.   This  "United States"  is  a
Legislative Democracy  within the Constitutional Republic, and is
known as  the Federal United States.  It has exclusive, unlimited
rule over  its  citizenry,  the  residents  of  the  District  of
Columbia, the  territories and  enclaves (Guam,  Midway  Islands,
Wake Island,  Puerto Rico,  etc.), and anyone who is a citizen by
way of the 14th Amendment (naturalized citizens).

Both United  States have  the same  Congress that  rules in  both
nations.   One "United States," the Republic of fifty States, has
the "stars  and stripes"  as its  flag, but without any fringe on
it.   The Federal  United States'  flag is  the stars and stripes
with a  yellow fringe, seen in all the courts.  The abbreviations
of the  States of  the Continental  United States  are,  with  or
without the  zip codes, Ala., Alas., Ariz., Ark., Cal., etc.  The
abbreviations of the States under the jurisdiction of the Federal
United States, the Legislative Democracy, are AL, AK, AZ, AR, CA,
etc. (without any periods).

Under the  Constitution, based on Common Law, the Republic of the
Continental United  States provides  for legal cases  (1) at Law,
(2) in Equity, and  (3) in Admiralty:

(1)  Law is  the collective  organization of the individual right
     to lawful  defense.   It is  the will  of the  majority, the
     organization of  the natural right of lawful defense.  It is
     the substitution of a common force for individual forces, to
     do only what the individual forces have a natural and lawful
     right to do:  to protect persons, liberties, and properties;
     to maintain the right of each, and to cause justice to reign
     over us  all.  Since an individual cannot lawfully use force
     against  the   person,  liberty,   or  property  of  another
     individual, then  the common  force  --  for the same reason
     --   cannot lawfully be used to destroy the person, liberty,
     or property  of individuals or groups.  Law allows you to do
     anything you want to, as long as you don't infringe upon the
     life, liberty  or property  of anyone  else.   Law does  not
     compel performance.   Today's  so-called  laws  (ordinances,
     statutes, acts,  regulations, orders,  precepts,  etc.)  are
     often  erroneously   perceived  as  law,  but  just  because
     something is  called a  "law" does not necessarily make it a
     law.   [There is  a difference between "legal" and "lawful."
     Anything the  government does  is legal,  but it  may not be

(2)  Equity is the jurisdiction of compelled performance (for any
     contract you are a party to) and is based on what is fair in
     a particular  situation.   The  term  "equity"  denotes  the
     spirit and  habit of  fairness, justness,  and right dealing
     which would  regulate the  intercourse of men with men.  You
     have  no  rights  other  than  what  is  specified  in  your
     contract.  Equity has no criminal aspects to it.

(3)  Admiralty is  compelled performance plus a criminal penalty,
     a civil contract with a criminal penalty.

By 1938  the gradual  merger procedurally  between law and equity
actions (i.e.,  the  same  court  has  jurisdiction  over  legal,
equitable, and admiralty matters) was recognized.  The nation was
bankrupt and  was  owned  by  its  creditors  (the  international
bankers) who  now  owned  everything    --    the  Congress,  the
Executive, the  courts, all the States and their legislatures and
executives, all  the land,  and all  the people.   Everything was
mortgaged  in  the  national  debt.    We  had  gone  from  being
sovereigns over  government to subjects under government, through
the use  of negotiable  instruments to  discharge our  debts with
limited liability, instead of paying our debts at common law with
gold or silver coin.

The remainder  of this  article explains how this happened, where
we are  today, and  what remedy we have to protect ourselves from
this system.

             Our Present Commercial System of "Law"
           and the REMEDY Provided for Our Protection

The present  commercial system  of "law" has replaced the old and
familiar  Common Law upon  which our  nation was  founded.    The
following is  the legal  thread which  brought us from sovereigns
over government  to subjects under government, through the use of
negotiable instruments  (Federal Reserve  Notes) to discharge our
debts with  limited liability  instead of  paying  our  debts  at
common law with gold or silver coin.

The change  in our  system of  law from  public  law  to  private
commercial law  was recognized by the Supreme Court of the United
States in  the  Erie Railroad v. Thompkins  case  of 1938,  after
which case,  in  the  same  year,  the  procedures  of  Law  were
officially blended with the procedures of Equity.  Prior to 1938,
all U.S.  Supreme Court  decisions were based upon public law  --
or that  system of  law that  was  controlled  by  Constitutional
limitation.   Since 1938,  all U.S.  Supreme Court  decisions are
based upon what is termed public policy.

Public policy  concerns commercial  transactions made  under  the
Negotiable  Instrument's   Law,  which   is  a   branch  of   the
international Law  Merchant.  This has been codified into what is
now known as the Uniform Commercial Code, which system of law was
made uniform  throughout the  fifty States through the cunning of
the Congress  of the United States (which "United States" has its
origin in Article I, Section 8, Clause 17 of the Constitution, as
distinguished from the "United States," which is the Union of the
fifty States).

In offering  grants of  negotiable paper  (Federal Reserve Notes)
which the  Congress gave  to the  fifty States  of the  Union for
education, highways,  health, and  other purposes, Congress bound
all the  States of the Union into a commercial agreement with the
Federal United  States (as  distinguished  from  the  Continental
United States).  The fifty States accepted the "benefits" offered
by the Federal United States as the consideration of a commercial
agreement between  the Federal  United States  and  each  of  the
corporate States.   The  corporate States  were then obligated to
obey the Congress of the Federal United States and also to assume
their portion of the equitable debts of the Federal United States
to the  international banking houses, for the credit loaned.  The
credit which  each State received, in the form of federal grants,
was predicated upon equitable paper.

This system  of negotiable  paper binds all corporate entities of
government together in a vast system of commercial agreements and
is what  has altered  our court  system from one under the Common
Law to  a Legislative  Article I  Court, or  Tribunal, system  of
commercial law.  Those persons brought before this court are held
to the  letter of  every statute  of government  on the  federal,
state, county, or municipal levels unless they have exercised the
REMEDY provided  for them  within that  system of  Commercial Law
whereby, when  forced to  use a  so-called "benefit"  offered, or
available, to  them, from  government,  they  may  reserve  their
former right,  under the  Common Law guarantee of same, not to be
bound by any contract, or commercial agreement, that they did not
enter knowingly, voluntarily, and intentionally.

This is  exactly how the corporate entities of state, county, and
municipal  governments   got  entangled   with  the   Legislative
Democracy, created  by Article  I, Section  8, Clause  17 of  the
Constitution, and  called here  The  Federal  United  States,  to
distinguish it  from the  Continental United States, whose origin
was in the Union of the Sovereign States.

The same  national Congress  rules the  Continental United States
pursuant to  Constitutional limits  upon its  authority, while it
enjoys exclusive  rule, with no Constitutional limitations, as it
legislates for the Federal United States.

With the  above information,  we may  ask:  "How did we, the free
Preamble citizenry  of the  Sovereign States, lose our guaranteed
unalienable rights and be forced into acceptance of the equitable
debt obligations  of the  Federal United  States, and also become
subject to  that entity  of government,  and  divorced  from  our
Sovereign  States  in  the  Republic,  which  we  call  here  the
Continental United  States?"   We do  not reside,  work, or  have
income from  any territory  subject to the direct jurisdiction of
the Federal  United  States.    These  are  questions  that  have
troubled sincere,  patriotic Americans  for many years.  Our lack
of knowledge  concerning the  cunning of  the legal profession is
the  cause  of  that  divorce,  but  a  knowledge  of  the  truth
concerning the  legal thread,  which caught  us in  its net, will
restore our  former status  as a  free Preamble  citizen  of  the
Republic.  The answer follows:

Our national  Congress works  for two  nations  foreign  to  each
other, and  by legal  cunning both  are called The United States.
One is  the Union  of Sovereign  States, under  the Constitution,
termed in  this article the Continental United States.  The other
is a  Legislative Democracy  which has  its origin  in Article I,
Section 8, Clause 17 of the Constitution, here termed the Federal
United States.   Very few people, when they see some "law" passed
by Congress,  ask themselves,  "Which nation was Congress working
for when  it passed  this or  that so-called  law?"  Or, few ask,
"Does this  particular law  apply to the Continental citizenry of
the Republic, or does this particular law apply only to residents
of  the  District  of  Columbia  and  other  named  enclaves,  or
territories, of the Democracy called the Federal United States?"

Since  these   questions  are  seldom  asked  by  the  uninformed
citizenry  of  the  Republic,  it  was  an  open  invitation  for
"cunning" political  leadership to  seek more power and authority
over the  entire citizenry  of the Republic through the medium of
"legalese."   Congress deliberately failed in its duty to provide
a medium  of exchange  for the  citizenry  of  the  Republic,  in
harmony with  its Constitutional mandate.  Instead, it created an
abundance  of   commercial  credit   money  for  the  Legislative
Democracy, where  it was not bound by Constitutional limitations.
Then,  after   having  created  an  emergency  situation,  and  a
tremendous  depression   in  the   Republic,  Congress  used  its
emergency authority  to remove  the remaining substance (gold and
silver) from  the medium  of exchange  belonging to the Republic,
and made  the negotiable  instrument  paper  of  the  Legislative
Democracy (Federal  United States) a legal tender for Continental
United States citizenry to use in the discharge of debts.

At the  same time,  Congress granted  the entire citizenry of the
two nations  the "benefit"  of limited liability in the discharge
of all  debts by  telling the  citizenry that the gold and silver
coins of  the Republic  were out  of date  and cumbersome.    The
citizens were  told that gold and silver (substance) was no loner
needed to  pay their  debts, that  they were  now "privileged" to
discharge debt  with this  more "convenient"  currency, issued by
the Federal  United States.  Consequently, everyone was forced to
"go modern,"  and to  turn in  their gold as a patriotic gesture.
The entire  news media  complex went  along  with  the  scam  and
declared it  to be  a forward  step for  our democracy, no longer
referring to America as a Republic.

From that  time on,  it was  a falling  light for the Republic of
1776, and  a rising  light  for  Franklin  Roosevelt's  New  Deal
Democracy, which  overcame the  depression, which was caused by a
created shortage  of real  money.  There was created an abundance
of debt  paper money,  so-called, in the form of interest-bearing
negotiable instrument  paper called  Federal Reserve  Notes,  and
other forms of paperwork credit instruments.

Since all  contracts since  Roosevelt's time  have the  colorable
consideration of  Federal Reserve  Notes, instead  of  a  genuine
consideration  of   silver  and  gold  coin,  all  contracts  are
colorable contracts,  and not  genuine contracts.   [According to
Black's Law  Dictionary (1990), colorable means "That which is in
appearance only,  and not  in reality,  what it  purports to  be,
hence counterfeit, feigned, having the appearance of truth."]

Consequently, a  new colorable  jurisdiction, called  a statutory
jurisdiction, had  to be  created to enforce the contracts.  Soon
the term  colorable contract  was changed  to the term commercial
agreement to fit circumstances of the new statutory jurisdiction,
which is  legislative, rather  than judicial,  in nature.    This
jurisdiction enforces commercial agreements upon implied consent,
rather than  full knowledge,  as it  is with  the enforcement  of
contracts under the Common Law.

All of our courts today sit as legislative Tribunals, and the so-
called "statutes"  of legislative  bodies being enforced in these
Legislative  Tribunals   are  not   "statutes"  passed   by   the
legislative  branch   of  our   three-branch  Republic,   but  as
"commercial obligations"  to the Federal United States for anyone
in the  Federal United States or in the Continental United States
who has  used the equitable currency of the Federal United States
and  who   has  accepted   the  "benefit,"   or  "privilege,"  of
discharging  his  debts  with  the  limited  liability  "benefit"
offered to  him by the Federal United States ... EXCEPT those who
availed themselves of the remedy within this commercial system of
law, which  remedy is  today found  in  Book  1  of  the  Uniform
Commercial Code at Section 207.

When used  in conjunction  with one's  signature, a stamp stating
"Without Prejudice U.C.C. 1-207" is sufficient to indicate to the
magistrate of  any of  our present  Legislative Tribunals (called
"courts") that the signer of the document has reserved his Common
Law right.   He  is not to be bound to the statute, or commercial
obligation, of  any commercial  agreement that  he did  not enter
knowingly, voluntarily,  and intentionally,  as would be the case
in any Common Law contract.

Furthermore,  pursuant   to  U.C.C.  1-103,  the  statute,  being
enforced as  a commercial  obligation of  a commercial agreement,
must now  be construed  in harmony  with the  old Common  Law  of
America, where the tribunal/court must rule that the statute does
not apply  to the  individual who  is wise  enough  and  informed
enough to exercise the remedy provided in this new system of law.
He retains his former status in the Republic and fully enjoys his
unalienable rights,  guaranteed to him by the Constitution of the
Republic,  while   those  about   him  "curse  the  darkness"  of
Commercial Law  government, lacking  the  truth  needed  to  free
themselves from  a slave  status under the Federal United States,
even while inhabiting territory foreign to its territorial venue.

                             #  #  #


U.C.C. 1-207:4  Sufficiency of reservation.

Any expression  indicating any  intention to  preserve rights  is
sufficient, such  as "without prejudice," "under protest," "under
reservation," or "with reservation of all our rights."

The  Code   states  an   "explicit"  reservation  must  be  made.
"Explicit" undoubtedly  is used in place of "express" to indicate
that the  reservation must not only be "express" but it must also
be "clear" that such a reservation was intended.

The term  "explicit" as used in U.C.C. 1-207 means "that which is
so clearly  stated or  distinctively set  forth that  there is no
doubt as to its meaning." ...

U.C.C. 1-207:7  Effect of reservation of rights.

The making  of a  valid reservation  of rights preserves whatever
rights the  person then  possesses and  prevents the loss of such
right by application of concepts of waiver or estoppel ....

U.C.C. 1-207:9  Failure to make reservation.

When a waivable right or claim is involved, the failure to make a
reservation thereof  causes a  loss of  the right  and  bars  its
assertion at a later date ....

U.C.C. 1-103:6  Common law.

The Code  is "Complementary"  to the  common law which remains in
force except where displaced by the Code ....

A statute  should be  construed in  harmony with  the common  law
unless there is a clear legislative intent to abrogate the common
law. ...   "The  Code cannot  be read  to preclude  a common  law


Your Honor,  my use  of "Without  Prejudice UCC  1-207" above  my
signature on  this document  indicates that  I have exercised the
"Remedy" provided for me in the Uniform Commercial Code in Book 1
at Section  207, whereby I may reserve my Common Law right not to
be compelled  to perform under any contract, or agreement, that I
have not  entered into knowingly, voluntarily, and intentionally.
And, that  reservation  serves  notice  upon  all  administrative
agencies of government  --  national, state and local  --  that I
do not,  and will  not, accept  the liability associated with the
"compelled" benefit of any unrevealed commercial agreement.


Type of government      Constitutional Republic                           Legislative democracy

Territory (venue)       A union of 50 independent sovereign States,       The District of Columbia and all the territories and enclaves
                        not including the District of Columbia,           (American Samoa, Guam, Midway Islands, Puerto Rico, Wake
                        territories or enclaves                           Island, etc.)
Capital                 The union of the United States is the only        Since June 1800, a "City of Washington" sits in the federal
                        country in the world with no national capital     District of Columbia, which is exempt from all State influence
                        within its venue.  Each sovereign State has       and jurisdiction.  The city is ruled by a federal Commission
                        its own capital.                                  appointed by the President.  It has no local legislature;  the
                                                                          only legislative authority is Congress.  It is the meeting place
                                                                          of Congress and is the seat of federal administration.

Created by              "We the People," free Preamble sovereign          Article I, Section 8, Clause 17 of the U.S. Constitution

Citizenry               Each State has rule over its own citizenry,       The citizens of the District of Columbia, all the territories,
                        made up of free Preamble persons:  "We the        enclaves and possessions, and all naturalized citizens (14th
                        People ... and our Posterity."                    Amendment, Section 1)

Executive branch        President                                         President

Legislative branch      A Congress of the Republic consisting of          A Congress of the Legislative Democracy  --  the same persons
                        representatives from the citizenry

Congress' jurisdiction  The States only, not the citizenry of the         The citizenry of DC, the territories, enclaves, and possessions,
                        States except under some form of Commercial       naturalized citizens, and those who put themselves under the rule
                        Agreement                                         of federal regions
Judicial jurisdiction   Law, equity (Article III courts) and              Colorable admiralty (called statutory), Article I legislative
                        admiralty                                         courts

Authorized currency     Real money, based on substance:  gold and         Promises-to-pay money,based on bank credit:  Federal Reserve Notes
                        silver (Article I, Section 10, Clause 1)          non-redeemable in gold or silver (equitable paper involving
                                                                          Commercial Agreements under negotiable instrument law  --
                                                                          later codified as Uniform Commercial Code (UCC)

Limitations             Many in the U.S. Constitution                     None, except what are called Unconscionable Agreements under UCC

Flag                    Stars and stripes without yellow fringe           Stars and stripes with yellow fringe
State abbreviations     Ala., Alas., Ariz., Ark., Cal., Colo., etc.       AL, AK, AZ, AR, CA, CO, CT, DE, FL, MT, SC, TX, etc.
                        (with or without zip codes)                       (with or without zip codes)

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Howard Freeman