The Qualifications Clauses
                in the Organic U.S. Constitution
                Paul Andrew Mitchell, B.A., M.S.
                Counselor at Law, Federal Witness
                  and Private Attorney General
                       All Rights Reserved
                       (November 10, 1998)
     There are  three elected  offices in the federal government.
They are  the offices of  Representative, Senator, and President.
Eligibility for  these  offices  is  defined  in  three  separate
clauses in  the U.S. Constitution,  which  recite  the  requisite
qualifications a  candidate must  possess,  in  order  to  serve.
Hence, the  term "Qualifications  Clauses".   These three clauses
are found at the following places in the U.S. Constitution:
     Qualifications for the office of U.S. Representative
     Article I, Section 2, Clause 2 ("1:2:2")
     Qualifications for the office of U.S. Senator
     Article I, Section 3, Clause 3 ("1:3:3")
     Qualifications for the office of President
     Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 ("2:1:5")
     Despite recent  unsuccessful efforts  to limit  the terms of
U.S. Representatives  and Senators,  these Qualifications Clauses
have never been amended.  Therefore, they retain the same meaning
which they had, when they were first ratified into Supreme Law on
June 21, 1788 A.D.
     In addition to the organic Constitution, as ratified on that
date in 1788, on February 7, 1795 the Eleventh Amendment was also
ratified  by the several States.  That Amendment  also does refer
to State Citizens where it mentions “Citizens of another State”:
     Eleventh Amendment (18 Stat. 30):
     Taken together  with the  Diversity Clause ("3:2:1") and the
Privileges  and  Immunities  Clause  ("4:2:1"),  all six of these
clauses share  one very important thing in common:  all six refer
to one and only one class of Citizens, namely, Citizens of ONE OF
the 50 States which are united by,and under, the Constitution for
the United  States of America.  Thus, the proper construction and
common understanding  of these  clauses (to  borrow a phrase from
the case of Ex Parte Knowles) is crucial to understanding the all
important difference between State Citizens and federal citizens.
     For a longer treatise on the meaning of Citizenship, see:
     "Citizenship for Dummies"
     Author's Comments Clarifying "Citizenship for Dummies"
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Paul Andrew Mitchell