International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
 
 
The States Parties to the present Covenant,
 
Considering that, in accordance with the principles proclaimed in
the Charter  of the  United Nations,  recognition of the inherent
dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of
the human  family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace
in the world,
 
Recognizing that these rights derive from the inherent dignity of
the human person,
 
Recognizing that, in accordance with the Universal Declaration of
Human Rights,  the ideal  of free human beings enjoying civil and
political freedom  and freedom  from fear  and want  can only  be
achieved if conditions are created whereby everyone may enjoy his
civil and  political rights,  as well as his economic, social and
cultural rights,
 
Considering the  obligation of  States under  the Charter  of the
United Nations  to promote  universal respect  for and observance
of, human rights and freedoms,
 
Realizing that the individual, having duties to other individuals
and  to   the  community   to  which   he  belongs,  is  under  a
responsibility to  strive for the promotion and observance of the
rights recognized in the present Covenant,
 
 
Agree upon the following articles:
 
 
                             PART I
 
                            Article 1
 
1.   All peoples have the right of self-determination.  By virtue
of that  right they  freely determine  their political status and
freely pursue their economic, social and cultural development.
 
2.   All peoples may, for their own ends, freely dispose of their
natural wealth and resources without prejudice to any obligations
arising out  of international  economic co-operation,  based upon
the principle  of mutual  benefit, and  international law.  In no
case may a people be deprived of its own means of subsistence.
 
3.   The States  Parties to the present Covenant, including those
having  responsibility   for  the   administration  of  Non-Self-
Governing and Trust Territories, shall promote the realization of
the right of self-determination, and shall respect that right, in
conformity with  the provisions  of the  Charter  of  the  United
Nations.
 
 
       International Covenant on Civil & Political Rights:
                          Page 1 of 20

                             PART II
                            Article 2
 
1.   Each State  Party to  the  present  Covenant  undertakes  to
respect and to ensure to all individuals within its territory and
subject to  its jurisdiction the rights recognized in the present
Covenant, without  distinction of any kind, such as race, colour,
sex, language,  religion, political or other opinion, national or
social origin, property, birth or other status.
 
2.   Where not  already provided  for by  existing legislative or
other  measures,   each  State  Party  to  the  present  Covenant
undertakes to  take the  necessary steps,  in accordance with its
constitutional processes  and with  the provisions of the present
Covenant, to  adopt such  legislative or other measures as may be
necessary to  give effect to the rights recognized in the present
Covenant.
 
3.   Each State Party to the present Covenant undertakes:
 
(a)  To ensure that any person whose rights or freedoms as herein
     recognized are  violated shall  have  an  effective  remedy,
     notwithstanding that  the violation  has been  committed  by
     persons acting in an official capacity;
 
(b)  To ensure  that any person claiming such a remedy shall have
     his  right   thereto  determined   by  competent   judicial,
     administrative or  legislative authorities,  or by any other
     competent authority  provided for by the legal system of the
     State, and to develop the possibilities of judicial remedy;
 
(c)  To ensure  that the competent authorities shall enforce such
     remedies when granted.
 
 
                            Article 3
 
The States  Parties to  the present  Covenant undertake to ensure
the equal  right of  men and  women to the enjoyment of all civil
and political rights set forth in the present Covenant.
 
                            Article 4
 
1.   In time  of public emergency which threatens the life of the
nation and  the existence  of which is officially proclaimed, the
States  Parties   to  the  present  Covenant  may  take  measures
derogating from  their obligations  under the present Covenant to
the extent  strictly required by the exigencies of the situation,
provided that such measures are not inconsistent with their other
obligations  under   international  law   and  do   not   involve
discrimination  solely  on  the  ground  of  race,  colour,  sex,
language, religion or social origin.
 
2.   No derogation  from articles  6, 7,  8 (paragraphs 1 and 2),
11, 15, 16 and 18 may be made under this provision.
 
 
       International Covenant on Civil & Political Rights:
                          Page 2 of 20

3.   Any State  Party to  the present Covenant availing itself of
the right of derogation shall immediately inform the other States
Parties to  the present Covenant, through the intermediary of the
Secretary-General of  the United  Nations, of the provisions from
which it  has derogated  and of  the  reasons  by  which  it  was
actuated.   A further  communication shall  be made,  through the
same intermediary,  on the  date  on  which  it  terminates  such
derogation.
 
 
                            Article 5
 
1.   Nothing in  the  present  Covenant  may  be  interpreted  as
implying for  any State,  group or  person any right to engage in
any activity  or perform  any act aimed at the destruction of any
of  the  rights  and  freedoms  recognized  herein  or  at  their
limitation to  a greater  extent than  is  provided  for  in  the
present Covenant.
 
2.   There shall be no restriction upon or derogation from any of
the fundamental  human rights recognized or existing in any State
Party to  the present  Covenant  pursuant  to  law,  conventions,
regulations or  custom on  the pretext  that the present Covenant
does not  recognize such  rights or  that it recognizes them to a
lesser extent.
 
 
                            PART III
 
                            Article 6
 
1.   Every human  being has  the inherent  right to  life.   This
right shall  be protected  by law.   No  one shall be arbitrarily
deprived of his life.
 
2.   In countries  which have  not abolished  the death  penalty,
sentence of death may be imposed only for the most serious crimes
in accordance with the law in force at the time of the commission
of the  crime and  not contrary  to the provisions of the present
Covenant and  to the  Convention on the Prevention and Punishment
of the  Crime of  Genocide.  This penalty can only be carried out
pursuant to a final judgement rendered by a competent court.
 
3.   When deprivation  of life constitutes the crime of genocide,
it is understood that nothing in this article shall authorize any
State Party  to the  present Covenant to derogate in any way from
any obligation  assumed under the provisions of the Convention on
the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide.
 
4.   Anyone sentenced  to death  shall have  the  right  to  seek
pardon or  commutation of  the  sentence.    Amnesty,  pardon  or
commutation of the sentence of death may be granted in all cases.
 
5.   Sentence of  death shall not be imposed for crimes committed
by persons  below eighteen  years of age and shall not be carried
out on pregnant women.
 
 
       International Covenant on Civil & Political Rights:
                          Page 3 of 20

6.   Nothing in  this article  shall be  invoked to  delay or  to
prevent the abolition of capital punishment by any State Party to
the present Covenant.
 
 
                            Article 7
 
No one  shall be  subjected to  torture or  to cruel,  inhuman or
degrading treatment  or punishment.   In particular, no one shall
be subjected  without his  free consent  to medical or scientific
experimentation.
 
 
                            Article 8
 
1.   No one shall be held in slavery; slavery and the slave-trade
in all their forms shall be prohibited.
 
2.   No one shall be held in servitude.
 
3.   (a)  No  one   shall  be   required  to  perform  forced  or
          compulsory labour
 
     (b)  Paragraph 3  (a) shall  not be  held  to  preclude,  in
          countries where  imprisonment with  hard labour  may be
          imposed as a punishment for a crime, the performance of
          hard  labour   in  pursuance  of  a  sentence  to  such
          punishment by a competent court.
 
     (c)  For the purpose of this paragraph the term "forced or
          compulsory labour" shall not include:
 
          (i)  Any work  or service,  not  referred  to  in  sub-
               paragraph (b),  normally required  of a person who
               is under  detention in  consequence  of  a  lawful
               order  of   a  court,   or  of   a  person  during
               conditional release from such detention;
 
          (ii) Any  service  of  a  military  character  and,  in
               countries   where   conscientious   objection   is
               recognized, any  national service  required by law
               of conscientious objectors;
 
          (iii) Any  service exacted  in cases  of  emergency  or
               calamity threatening the life or well-being of the
               community;
 
          (iv) Any work  or service  which forms  part of  normal
               civil obligations.
 
 
                            Article 9
 
1.   Everyone has  the right  to liberty  and security of person.
No one  shall be  subjected to arbitrary arrest or detention.  No
one shall  be deprived  of his liberty except on such grounds and
in accordance with such procedure as are established by law.
 
 
       International Covenant on Civil & Political Rights:
                          Page 4 of 20

2.   Anyone who  is arrested  shall be  informed, at  the time of
arrest, of  the reasons  for his  arrest and  shall  be  promptly
informed of any charges against him.
 
3.   Anyone arrested  or detained  on a  criminal charge shall be
brought promptly  before a  judge or  other officer authorized by
law to  exercise judicial  power and  shall be  entitled to trial
within a  reasonable time  or to  release.   It shall  not be the
general rule  that persons  awaiting trial  shall be  detained in
custody, but  release may  be subject to guarantees to appear for
trial, at  any other  stage of  the  judicial  proceedings,  and,
should occasion arise, for execution of the judgement.
 
4.   Anyone who is deprived of his liberty by arrest or detention
shall be  entitled to  take proceedings  before a court, in order
that that court may decide without delay on the lawfulness of his
detention and order his release if the detention is not lawful.
 
5.   Anyone who  has  been  the  victim  of  unlawful  arrest  or
detention shall have an enforceable right to compensation.
 
 
                           Article 10
 
1.   All persons  deprived of their liberty shall be treated with
humanity and  with respect  for the inherent dignity of the human
person.
 
2.   (a)  Accused   persons    shall,   save    in    exceptional
          circumstances, be segregated from convicted persons and
          shall be  subject to  separate treatment appropriate to
          their status as unconvicted persons;
 
     (b)  Accused juvenile persons shall be separated from adults
          and brought as speedily as possible for adjudication.
 
3.   The  penitentiary   system  shall   comprise  treatment   of
prisoners the  essential aim  of which shall be their reformation
and  social   rehabilitation.     Juvenile  offenders   shall  be
segregated from  adults and  be accorded treatment appropriate to
their age and legal status.
 
 
                           Article 11
 
No one  shall be  imprisoned merely on the ground of inability to
fulfil a contractual obligation.
 
 
                           Article 12
 
1.   Everyone lawfully  within the  territory of  a State  shall,
within that  territory, have the right to liberty of movement and
freedom to choose his residence.
 
 
       International Covenant on Civil & Political Rights:
                          Page 5 of 20

2.   Everyone shall  be free  to leave any country, including his
own.
 
3.   The above-mentioned  rights shall  not  be  subject  to  any
restrictions  except   those  which  are  provided  by  law,  are
necessary to  protect  national  security,  public  order  (ordre
public), public  health or  morals or  the rights and freedoms of
others, and  are consistent  with the  other rights recognized in
the present Covenant.
 
4.   No one  shall be  arbitrarily deprived of the right to enter
his own country.
 
 
                           Article 13
 
An alien  lawfully in  the territory  of a  State  Party  to  the
present Covenant may be expelled therefrom only in pursuance of a
decision reached  in accordance  with law and shall, except where
compelling reasons  of national  security otherwise  require,  be
allowed to  submit the  reasons against his expulsion and to have
his case  reviewed by, and be represented for the purpose before,
the  competent  authority  or  a  person  or  persons  especially
designated by the competent authority.
 
 
                           Article 14
 
1.   All persons  shall be equal before the courts and tribunals.
In the  determination of  any criminal  charge against him, or of
his rights  and obligations  in a  suit at law, everyone shall be
entitled to a fair and public hearing by a competent, independent
and impartial  tribunal established  by law.   The  Press and the
public may be excluded from all or part of a trial for reasons of
morals, public  order (ordre  public) or  national security  in a
democratic society,  or when the interest of the private lives of
the parties  so requires,  or to the extent strictly necessary in
the opinion of the court in special circumstances where publicity
would prejudice  the interests  of  justice;  but  any  judgement
rendered in  a criminal  case or  in a  suit at law shall be made
public except  where the  interest of  juvenile persons otherwise
requires or  the proceedings  concern matrimonial disputes or the
guardianship of children.
 
2.   Everyone charged  with a  criminal offence  shall  have  the
right to  be presumed  innocent until  proved guilty according to
law.
 
3.   In the  determination of  any criminal  charge against  him,
everyone shall  be entitled  to the following minimum guarantees,
in full equality:
 
     (a)  To be  informed promptly  and in  detail in  a language
          which he  understands of  the nature  and cause  of the
          charge against him;
 
 
       International Covenant on Civil & Political Rights:
                          Page 6 of 20

     (b)  To  have   adequate  time   and  facilities   for   the
          preparation of  his defence  and  to  communicate  with
          counsel of his own choosing;
 
     (c)  To be tried without undue delay;
 
     (d)  To be  tried in  his presence, and to defend himself in
          person or through legal assistance of his own choosing;
          to be  informed, if  he does not have legal assistance,
          of this right; and to have legal assistance assigned to
          him, in  any case  where the  interests of  justice  so
          require, and without payment by him in any such case if
          he does not have sufficient means to pay for it;
 
     (e)  To examine,  or have examined the witnesses against him
          and  to   obtain  the  attendance  and  examination  of
          witnesses on  his behalf  under the  same conditions as
          witnesses against him;
 
     (f)  To have  the free  assistance of  an interpreter  if he
          cannot understand or speak the language used in court;
 
     (g)  Not to  be compelled  to testify  against himself or to
          confess guilt.
 
4.   In the case of juvenile persons, the procedure shall be such
as will  take account  of  their  age  and  the  desirability  of
promoting their rehabilitation.
 
5.   Everyone convicted  of a  crime shall  have the right to his
conviction and  sentence being  reviewed  by  a  higher  tribunal
according to law.
 
6.   When a  person has  by a  final decision been convicted of a
criminal offence  and when  subsequently his  conviction has been
reversed or  he has  been pardoned  on the  ground that  a new or
newly discovered  fact shows  conclusively that  there has been a
miscarriage of justice, the person who has suffered punishment as
a result  of such  conviction shall  be compensated  according to
law, unless  it is  proved that the non-disclosure of the unknown
fact in time is wholly or partly attributable to him.
 
7.   No one  shall be liable to be tried or punished again for an
offence for  which he  has  already  been  finally  convicted  or
acquitted in  accordance with the law and penal procedure of each
country.
 
 
                           Article 15
 
1.   No one  shall be  held guilty  of any  criminal  offence  on
account of  any act  or  omission  which  did  not  constitute  a
criminal offence,  under national  or international  law, at  the
time when  it was  committed.   Nor shall  a heavier  penalty  be
imposed than  the one  that was  applicable at  the time when the
criminal offence was committed.  If, subsequent to the commission
 
 
       International Covenant on Civil & Political Rights:
                          Page 7 of 20

of the  offence, provision is made by law for the imposition of a
lighter penalty, the offender shall benefit thereby.
 
2.   Nothing in  this  article  shall  prejudice  the  trial  and
punishment of  any person  for any  act or omission which, at the
time  when  it was  committed,  was  criminal  according  to  the
general principles of law recognized by the community of nations.
 
 
                           Article 16
 
Everyone shall  have the  right to  recognition everywhere  as  a
person before the law.
 
 
                           Article 17
 
1.   No  one   shall  be   subjected  to  arbitrary  or  unlawful
interference with  his privacy,  family, home  or correspondence,
nor to unlawful attacks on his honour and reputation.
 
2.   Everyone has  the right to the protection of the law against
such interference or attacks.
 
 
                           Article 18
 
1.   Everyone  shall  have  the  right  to  freedom  of  thought,
conscience and  religion.   This right  shall include  freedom to
have or to adopt a religion or belief of his choice, and freedom,
either individually  or in community with others and in public or
private,  to   manifest  his   religion  or  belief  in  worship,
observance, practice and teaching.
 
2.   No one  shall be  subject to coercion which would impair his
freedom to have or to adopt a religion or belief of his choice.
 
3.   Freedom to manifest one's religion or beliefs may be subject
only to  such limitations  as  are  prescribed  by  law  and  are
necessary to  protect public  safety, order, health, or morals or
the fundamental rights and freedoms of others.
 
4.   The States Parties to the present Covenant undertake to have
respect for  the liberty  of parents  and, when applicable, legal
guardians to  ensure the  religious and  moral education of their
children in conformity with their own convictions.
 
 
                           Article 19
 
1.   Everyone shall  have the  right  to  hold  opinions  without
interference.
 
2.   Everyone  shall  have  the  right  to freedom of expression;
this right shall  include freedom  to seek,  receive  and  impart
information and  ideas of  all kinds,  regardless  of  frontiers,
 
 
       International Covenant on Civil & Political Rights:
                          Page 8 of 20

either orally,  in writing  or in  print, in  the form of art, or
through any other media of his choice.
 
3.   The exercise  of the  rights provided  for in paragraph 2 of
this article carries with it special duties and responsibilities.
It may  therefore be  subject to  certain restrictions, but these
shall only be such as are provided by law and are necessary:
 
     (a)  For respect of the rights or reputations of others;
 
     (b)  For the  protection of  national security  or of public
          order (ordre public), or of public health or morals.
 
 
                           Article 20
 
1.   Any propaganda for war shall be prohibited by law.
 
2.   Any advocacy  of national,  racial or  religious hatred that
constitutes incitement  to discrimination,  hostility or violence
shall be prohibited by law.
 
 
                           Article 21
 
The  right   of  peaceful  assembly  shall  be  recognized.    No
restrictions may  be placed  on the  exercise of this right other
than those  imposed in  conformity with  the law  and  which  are
necessary in  a democratic  society in  the interests of national
security or  public safety,  public  order  (ordre  public),  the
protection of  public health  or morals  or the protection of the
rights and freedoms of others.
 
 
                           Article 22
 
1.   Everyone shall have the right to freedom of association with
others, including the right to form and join trade unions for the
protection of his interests.
 
2.   No restrictions  may be placed on the exercise of this right
other than  those which  are prescribed  by  law  and  which  are
necessary in  a democratic  society in  the interests of national
security or  public safety,  public  order  (ordre  public),  the
protection of  public health  or morals  or the protection of the
rights and  freedoms of  others.   This article shall not prevent
the imposition  of lawful  restrictions on  members of  the armed
forces and of the police in their exercise of this right.
 
3.   Nothing in  this article  shall authorize  States Parties to
the  International   Labour  Organisation   Convention  of   1948
concerning Freedom  of Association and Protection of the Right to
Organize to  take legislative  measures which would prejudice, or
to apply the law in such a manner as to prejudice, the guarantees
provided for in that Convention.
 
 
       International Covenant on Civil & Political Rights:
                          Page 9 of 20

                           Article 23
 
1.   The family  is the  natural and  fundamental group  unit  of
society and is entitled to protection by society and the State.
 
2.   The right  of men and women of marriageable age to marry and
to found a family shall be recognized.
 
3.   No marriage  shall be entered into without the free and full
consent of the intending spouses.
 
4.   States  Parties   to  the   present  Covenant   shall   take
appropriate   steps    to   ensure   equality   of   rights   and
responsibilities of  spouses as  to marriage, during marriage and
at its  dissolution.  In the case of dissolution, provision shall
be made for the necessary protection of any children.
 
 
                           Article 24
 
1.   Every child  shall have,  without any  discrimination as  to
race, colour  sex, language, religion, national or social origin,
property or  birth, the  right to  such measures of protection as
are required by his status as a minor, on the part of his family,
society and the State.
 
2.   Every child  shall be registered immediately after birth and
shall have a name.
 
3.   Every child has the right to acquire a nationality.
 
 
                           Article 25
 
Every citizen  shall have  the right and the opportunity, without
any of  the distinctions  mentioned  in  article  2  and  without
unreasonable restrictions:
 
     (a)  To take part in the conduct of public affairs, directly
          or through freely chosen representatives;
 
     (b)  To vote and to be elected at genuine periodic elections
          which shall  be by  universal and  equal  suffrage  and
          shall be  held by  secret ballot, guaranteeing the free
          expression of the will of the electors;
 
     (c)  To have access, on general terms of equality, to public
          service in his country.
 
 
                           Article 26
 
All persons are equal before the law and are entitled without any
discrimination  to  the  equal protection of the law.    In  this
respect, the  law shall prohibit any discrimination and guarantee
to  all   persons  equal   and   effective   protection   against
discrimination on any ground such as race, colour, sex, language,
religion, political  or other opinion, national or social origin,
property, birth or other status.
 
 
       International Covenant on Civil & Political Rights:
                          Page 10 of 20

                           Article 27
 
In  those   States  in  which  ethnic,  religious  or  linguistic
minorities exist  persons belonging  to such minorities shall not
be denied the right, in community with the other members of their
group, to  enjoy their own culture, to profess and practise their
own religion, or to use their own language.
 
 
                             PART IV
 
                           Article 28
 
1.   There  shall   be  established   a  Human  Rights  Committee
(hereafter referred to in the present Covenant as the Committee).
It shall  consist of  eighteen members  and shall  carry out  the
functions hereinafter provided.
 
2.   The Committee  shall be  composed of nationals of the States
Parties to  the present  Covenant who  shall be  persons of  high
moral character  and recognized  competence in the field of human
rights, consideration  being  given  to  the  usefulness  of  the
participation of some persons having legal experience.
 
3.   The members  of the  Committee shall  be elected  and  shall
serve in their personal capacity.
 
 
                           Article 29
 
1.   The members  of the  Committee shall  be elected  by  secret
ballot from  a list  of  persons  possessing  the  qualifications
prescribed in  article 28  and nominated  for the  purpose by the
States Parties to the present Covenant.
 
2.   Each State  Party to  the present  Covenant may nominate not
more than  two persons.   These persons shall be nationals of the
nominating State.
 
3.   A person shall be eligible for renomination.
 
 
                           Article 30
 
1.   The initial  election shall be held no later than six months
after the date of the entry into force of the present Covenant.
 
2.   At least four months before the date of each election to the
Committee other  than an  election to  fill a vacancy declared in
accordance with  article 34,  the Secretary-General of the United
Nations shall  address a written invitation to the States Parties
to  the   present  Covenant   to  submit  their  nominations  for
membership of the Committee within three months.
 
 
       International Covenant on Civil & Political Rights:
                          Page 11 of 20

3.   The Secretary-General  of the United Nations shall prepare a
list in  alphabetical order  of all  the persons  thus nominated,
with an  indication of  the States  Parties which  have nominated
them, and  shall submit  it to  the States Parties to the present
Covenant no  later  than  one  month  before  the  date  of  each
election.
 
4.   Elections of the members of the Committee shall be held at a
meeting of the States Parties to the present Covenant convened by
the Secretary-General  of the  United Nations at the Headquarters
of the  United Nations.  At that meeting, for which two thirds of
the States  Parties to  the present  Covenant shall  constitute a
quorum, the  persons elected  to the  Committee  shall  be  those
nominees who  obtain the  largest number of votes and an absolute
majority of  the votes  of the  representatives of States Parties
present and voting.
 
 
                           Article 31
 
1.   The Committee  may not include more than one national of the
same State.
 
2.   In the  election of  the Committee,  consideration shall  be
given to equitable geographical distribution of membership and to
the representation  of the different forms of civilization and of
the principal legal systems.
 
 
                           Article 32
 
1.   The members  of the Committee shall be elected for a term of
four  years.     They   shall  be  eligible  for  re-election  if
renominated.   However, the  terms of nine of the members elected
at the  first election  shall expire  at the  end of  two  years;
immediately after  the first  election, the  names of  these nine
members elected  at the first election shall expire at the end of
two years;  immediately after  the first  election, the  names of
these nine  members shall be chosen by lot by the Chairman of the
meeting referred to in article 30, paragraph 4.
 
2.   Elections  at   the  expiry  of  office  shall  be  held  in
accordance with  the preceding  articles  of  this  part  of  the
present Covenant.
 
 
                           Article 33
 
1.   If, in  the unanimous opinion of the other members, a member
of the  Committee has  ceased to  carry out his functions for any
cause other  than absence  of a temporary character, the Chairman
of the Committee shall notify the Secretary-General of the United
Nations, who  shall then  declare the  seat of  that member to be
vacant.
 
 
       International Covenant on Civil & Political Rights:
                          Page 12 of 20

2.   In the  event of the death or the resignation of a member of
the  Committee,   the  Chairman   shall  immediately  notify  the
Secretary-General of  the United  Nations, who  shall declare the
seat vacant  from the  date of  death or  the date  on which  the
resignation takes effect.
 
 
                           Article 34
 
1.   When a vacancy is declared in accordance with article 33 and
if the  term of  office of  the member  to be  replaced does  not
expire within  six months  of the declaration of the vacancy, the
Secretary-General of  the United Nations shall notify each of the
States Parties  to the  present Covenant,  which may  within  two
months submit  nominations in  accordance with article 29 for the
purpose of filling the vacancy.
 
2.   The Secretary-General  of the United Nations shall prepare a
list in  alphabetical order  of the  persons thus  nominated  and
shall submit  it to  the States  Parties to the present Covenant.
The election  to fill  the  vacancy  shall  then  take  place  in
accordance with  the relevant  provisions of  this  part  of  the
present Covenant.
 
3.   A member of the Committee elected to fill a vacancy declared
in accordance with Article 33 shall hold office for the remainder
of the  term of  the member who vacated the seat on the Committee
under the provisions of that article.
 
 
                           Article 35
 
The members  of the  Committee shall,  with the  approval of  the
General Assembly  of the  United Nations, receive emoluments from
United Nations  resources on  such terms  and conditions  as  the
General Assembly  may decide,  having regard to the importance of
the Committee's responsibilities.
 
 
                           Article 36
 
The Secretary-General  of the  United Nations  shall provide  the
necessary staff  and facilities  for the effective performance of
the functions of the Committee under the present Covenant.
 
 
                           Article 37
 
1.   The Secretary-General  of the  United Nations  shall convene
the initial  meeting of  the Committee at the Headquarters of the
United Nations.
 
2.   After its  initial meeting, the Committee shall meet at such
times as shall be provided in its rules of procedure.
 
3.   The Committee shall normally meet at the Headquarters of the
United Nations or at the United Nations Office at Geneva.
 
 
       International Covenant on Civil & Political Rights:
                          Page 13 of 20

                           Article 38
 
Every member of the Committee shall, before taking up his duties,
make a  solemn declaration in open committee that he will perform
his functions impartially and conscientiously.
 
 
                           Article 39
 
1.   The Committee  shall elect  its officers  for a  term of two
years.  They may be re-elected.
 
2.   The Committee  shall establish  its own  rules of procedure,
but these rules shall provide, inter alia, that:
 
     (a)  Twelve members shall constitute a quorum;
 
     (b)  Decisions of  the Committee shall be made by a majority
          vote of the members present.
 
 
                           Article 40
 
1.   The States  Parties to  the present  Covenant  undertake  to
submit reports  on the  measures they  have  adopted  which  give
effect to  the rights  recognized herein and on the progress made
in the enjoyment of those rights:
 
     (a)  Within one  year of the entry into force of the present
          Covenant for the States Parties concerned;
 
     (b)  Thereafter whenever the Committee so requests.
 
2.   All reports  shall be  submitted to the Secretary-General of
the United  Nations, who shall transmit them to the Committee for
consideration.     Reports  shall   indicate  the   factors   and
difficulties, if any, affecting the implementation of the present
Covenant.
 
3.   The Secretary-General  of  the  United  Nations  may,  after
consultation with  the Committee,  transmit  to  the  specialized
agencies concerned  copies of  such parts  of the  reports as may
fall within their field of competence.
 
4.   The Committee  shall study  the  reports  submitted  by  the
States Parties  to the  present Covenant.   It shall transmit its
reports,  and   such  general   comments  as   it  may   consider
appropriate, to  the States  Parties.   The  Committee  may  also
transmit to  the Economic and Social Council these comments along
with the  copies of  the reports  it  has  received  from  States
Parties to the present Covenant.
 
5.   The States Parties to the present Covenant may submit to the
Committee observations  on any  comments  that  may  be  made  in
accordance with paragraph 4 of this article.
 
 
       International Covenant on Civil & Political Rights:
                          Page 14 of 20

                           Article 41
 
1.   A State  Party to  the present  Covenant  may  at  any  time
declare under  this article  that it recognizes the competence of
the Committee  to receive  and  consider  communications  to  the
effect that  a State Party claims that another State Party is not
fulfilling  its   obligations   under   the   present   Covenant.
Communications under  this article may be received and considered
only if  submitted by  a State Party which has made a declaration
recognizing in  regard to itself the competence of the Committee.
No communication  shall  be  received  by  the  Committee  if  it
concerns a  State Party  which has  not made  such a declaration.
Communications received under this article shall be dealt with in
accordance with the following procedure:
 
     (a)  If a State Party to the present Covenant considers that
          another  State  Party  is  not  giving  effect  to  the
          provisions of  the present Covenant, it may, by written
          communication, bring  the matter  to the  attention  of
          that State  Party.    Within  three  months  after  the
          receipt of the communication, the receiving State shall
          afford  the  State  which  sent  the  communication  an
          explanation  or   any  other   statement   in   writing
          clarifying the  matter, which  should include,  to  the
          extent possible  and pertinent,  reference to  domestic
          procedures and remedies taken, pending, or available in
          the matter.
 
     (b)  If the  matter is  not adjusted  to the satisfaction of
          both States  Parties concerned  within six months after
          the receipt  by the  receiving  State  of  the  initial
          communication, either  State shall  have the  right  to
          refer the  matter to  the Committee, by notice given to
          the Committee and to the other State.
 
     (c)  The Committee  shall deal  with a matter referred to it
          only  after  it  has  ascertained  that  all  available
          domestic remedies  have been  invoked and  exhausted in
          the matter, in conformity with the generally recognized
          principles of international law.  This shall not be the
          rule  where   the  application   of  the   remedies  is
          unreasonably prolonged.
 
     (d)  The Committee shall hold closed meetings when examining
          communications under this article.
 
     (e)  Subject to  the provisions  of sub-paragraph  (c),  the
          Committee shall  make available its good offices to the
          States Parties  concerned with  a view  to  a  friendly
          solution of  the matter  on the  basis of  respect  for
          human rights  and fundamental freedoms as recognized in
          the present Covenant.
 
 
       International Covenant on Civil & Political Rights:
                          Page 15 of 20

     (f)  In any  matter referred  to it,  the Committee may call
          upon the  States Parties concerned, referred to in sub-
          paragraph (b), to supply any relevant information.
 
     (g)  The States  Parties  concerned,  referred  to  in  sub-
          paragraph (b),  shall have  the right to be represented
          when the  matter is  being considered  in the Committee
          and to make submissions orally and/or in writing.
 
     (h)  The Committee  shall, within  twelve months  after  the
          date of  receipt of  notice  under  sub-paragraph  (b),
          submit a report:
 
          (i)  If a  solution within  the terms  of sub-paragraph
               (e) is  reached, the  Committee shall  confine its
               report to  a brief  statement of  the facts and of
               the solution reached;
 
          (ii) If a  solution within  the terms  of sub-paragraph
               (e) is  not reached,  the Committee  shall confine
               its report to a brief statement of the facts;  the
               written  submissions   and  record   of  the  oral
               submissions made  by the  States Parties concerned
               shall be attached to the report.
 
In every  matter, the  report shall be communicated to the States
Parties concerned.
 
2.   The provisions  of this  article shall  come into force when
ten States Parties to the present Covenant have made declarations
under paragraph  1 of  this article.   Such declarations shall be
deposited by the States Parties with the Secretary-General of the
United Nations,  who shall  transmit copies  thereof to the other
States Parties.   A  declaration may  be withdrawn at any time by
notification to  the Secretary-General.   Such a withdrawal shall
not prejudice  the consideration  of  any  matter  which  is  the
subject  of   a  communication  already  transmitted  under  this
article;  no further communication  by any  State Party  shall be
received after  the notification of withdrawal of the declaration
has been  received by  the Secretary-General,  unless  the  State
Party concerned had made a new declaration.
 
 
                           Article 42
 
1.   (a)  If a  matter referred  to the  Committee in  accordance
          with article  41 is not resolved to the satisfaction of
          the States  Parties concerned,  the Committee may, with
          the prior  consent of  the  States  Parties  concerned,
          appoint an  ad hoc Conciliation Commission (hereinafter
          referred to as the Commission). The good offices of the
          Commission  shall  be  made  available  to  the  States
          Parties concerned  with a  view to an amicable solution
          of the  matter on  the basis of respect for the present
          Covenant;
 
 
       International Covenant on Civil & Political Rights:
                          Page 16 of 20

     (b)  The Commission shall consist of five persons acceptable
          to the States Parties concerned.  If the States Parties
          concerned fail  to reach  agreement within three months
          on all or part of the composition of the Commission the
          members of  the Commission concerning whom no agreement
          has been reached shall be elected by secret ballot by a
          two-thirds majority  vote of  the Committee  from among
          its members.
 
2.   The members  of the Commission shall serve in their personal
capacity.   They shall  not be  nationals of  the States  Parties
concerned, or of a State not party to the present Covenant, or of
a State Party which has not made a declaration under article 41.
 
3.   The Commission  shall elect  its own  Chairman and adopt its
own rules of procedure.
 
4.   The meetings of the Commission shall normally be held at the
Headquarters of  the United  Nations or  at  the  United  Nations
Office at  Geneva.   However, they  may be  held  at  such  other
convenient places as the Commission may determine in consultation
with the  Secretary-General of  the United Nations and the States
Parties concerned.
 
5.   The secretariat provided in accordance with article 36 shall
also service the commissions appointed under this article.
 
6.   The information received and collated by the Committee shall
be made  available to  the Commission and the Commission may call
upon the  States Parties  concerned to  supply any other relevant
information.
 
7.   When the  Commission has fully considered the matter, but in
any event  not later  than twelve months after having been seized
of the matter, it shall submit to the Chairman of the Committee a
report for communication to the States Parties concerned:
 
     (a)  If  the   Commission  is   unable   to   complete   its
          consideration of  the matter  within twelve  months, it
          shall confine  its report  to a  brief statement of the
          status of its consideration of the matter;
 
     (b)  If an  amicable solution  to the matter on the basis of
          respect for  human rights  as recognized in the present
          Covenant is  reached, the  Commission shall confine its
          report to  a brief  statement of  the facts  and of the
          solution reached;
 
     (c)  If a  solution within the terms of sub-paragraph (b) is
          not reached,  the Commission's  report shall embody its
          findings on  all questions  of  fact  relevant  to  the
          issues between  the States  Parties concerned,  and its
          views on  the possibilities  of an amicable solution of
          the matter.  This report shall also contain the written
          submissions and  a record  of the oral submissions made
          by the States Parties concerned;
 
 
       International Covenant on Civil & Political Rights:
                          Page 17 of 20

     (d)  If the  Commission's report  is  submitted  under  sub-
          paragraph (c),  the  States  Parties  concerned  shall,
          within three  months of  the  receipt  of  the  report,
          notify the  Chairman of  the Committee  whether or  not
          they  accept   the  contents   of  the  report  of  the
          Commission.
 
8.   The provisions  of this article are without prejudice to the
responsibilities of the Committee under article 41.
 
9.   The States  Parties concerned  shall share  equally all  the
expenses of  the members  of the  Commission in  accordance  with
estimates to  be provided  by the Secretary-General of the United
Nations.
 
10.  The  Secretary-General   of  the  United  Nations  shall  be
empowered to  pay the  expenses of the members of the Commission,
if  necessary,   before  reimbursement   by  the  States  Parties
concerned, in accordance with paragraph 9 of this article.
 
 
                           Article 43
 
The members  of the  Committee, and  of the  ad hoc  conciliation
commissions which  may be  appointed under  article 42,  shall be
entitled to  the facilities, privileges and immunities of experts
on mission  for the  United Nations  as laid down in the relevant
sections of  the Convention  on the  Privileges and Immunities of
the United Nations.
 
 
                           Article 44
 
The provisions  for the  implementation of  the present  Covenant
shall apply without prejudice to the procedures prescribed in the
field of human rights by or under the constituent instruments and
the conventions  of the  United Nations  and of  the  specialized
agencies and  shall not prevent the States Parties to the present
Covenant from  having recourse to other procedures for settling a
dispute in  accordance  with  general  or  special  international
agreements in force between them.
 
 
                           Article 45
 
The Committee  shall submit to the General Assembly of the United
Nations, through  the Economic  and  Social  Council,  an  annual
report on its activities.
 
 
                             PART V
 
                           Article 46
 
Nothing in the present Covenant shall be interpreted as impairing
the provisions  of the  Charter of  the United Nations and of the
constitutions  of  the  specialized  agencies  which  define  the
 
 
       International Covenant on Civil & Political Rights:
                          Page 18 of 20

respective responsibilities  of the  various organs of the United
Nations and  of the specialized agencies in regard to the matters
dealt with in the present Covenant.
 
 
                           Article 47
 
Nothing in the present Covenant shall be interpreted as impairing
the inherent  right of all peoples to enjoy and utilize fully and
freely their natural wealth and resources.
 
 
                             PART VI
 
                           Article 48
 
1.   The present  Covenant is  open for  signature by  any  State
Member of  the United Nations or member of any of its specialized
agencies, by  any State Party to the Statute of the International
Court of  Justice, and  by any other State which has been invited
by the  General Assembly  of the United Nations to become a party
to the present Covenant.
 
2.   The   present   Covenant   is   subject   to   ratification.
Instruments  of   ratification  shall   be  deposited   with  the
Secretary-General of the United Nations.
 
3.   The present Covenant shall be open to accession by any State
referred to in paragraph 1 of this article.
 
4.   Accession shall  be effected by the deposit of an instrument
of accession with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
 
5.   The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall inform all
States which  have signed  this Covenant  or acceded to it of the
deposit of each instrument of ratification or accession.
 
 
                           Article 49
 
1.   The present  Covenant shall  enter into  force three  months
after the  date of  the deposit with the Secretary-General of the
United Nations  of the thirty-fifth instrument of ratification or
instrument of accession.
 
2.   For each State ratifying the present Covenant or acceding to
it  after   the  deposit   of  the   thirty-fifth  instrument  of
ratification or  instrument of  accession, the  present  Covenant
shall enter into force three months after the date of the deposit
of its own instrument of ratification or instrument of accession.
 
 
                           Article 50
 
The provisions  of the present Covenant shall extend to all parts
of federal States without any limitations or exceptions.
 
 
       International Covenant on Civil & Political Rights:
                          Page 19 of 20

                           Article 51
 
1.   Any State  Party to  the present  Covenant  may  propose  an
amendment and  file it  with the  Secretary-General of the United
Nations.   The Secretary-General  of  the  United  Nations  shall
thereupon communicate  any  proposed  amendments  to  the  States
Parties to  the present  Covenant with a request that they notify
him whether  they favour  a conference  of States Parties for the
purpose of  considering and  voting upon  the proposals.   In the
event that  at least one third of the States Parties favours such
a conference,  the Secretary-General shall convene the conference
under the  auspices of the United Nations.  Any amendment adopted
by a  majority of  the States  Parties present  and voting at the
conference shall  be submitted  to the  General Assembly  of  the
United Nations for approval.
 
2.   Amendments  shall  come  into  force  when  they  have  been
approved by  the General  Assembly  of  the  United  Nations  and
accepted by  a two-thirds  majority of  the States Parties to the
present   Covenant    in   accordance   with   their   respective
constitutional processes.
 
3.   When amendments  come into  force, they  shall be binding on
those States  Parties which  have  accepted  them,  other  States
Parties still  being bound  by  the  provisions  of  the  present
Covenant and any earlier amendment which they have accepted.
 
                           Article 52
 
Irrespective  of   the  notifications   made  under  article  48,
paragraph 5,  the Secretary-General  of the  United Nations shall
inform all  States referred to in paragraph 1 of the same article
of the following particulars:
 
     (a)  Signatures, ratifications and accessions under article
          48;
 
     (b)  The date  of  the  entry  into  force  of  the  present
          Covenant under  article 49  and the  date of  the entry
          into force of any amendments under article 51.
 
 
                           Article 53
 
1.   The present Covenant, of which the Chinese, English, French,
Russian  and  Spanish  texts  are  equally  authentic,  shall  be
deposited in the archives of the United Nations.
 
2.   The Secretary-General  of the  United Nations shall transmit
certified copies  of the  present Covenant to all States referred
to in article 48.
 
IN FAITH  WHEREOF the  undersigned, being duly authorized thereto
by  their   respective  Governments,   have  signed  the  present
Covenant, opened for signature at New York, on the nineteenth day
of December, one thousand nine hundred and sixty-six.
 
 
       International Covenant on Civil & Political Rights:
                          Page 20 of 20

                             #  #  #
 

Return to Table of Contents for

Human Rights Treaties