Universal Declaration of Human Rights
(Adopted by United Nations General Assembly Resolution 217A (III)
of December 10, 1948)
Whereas recognition  of the inherent dignity and of the equal and
inalienable rights  of all  members of  the human  family is  the
foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,
Whereas disregard  and contempt for human rights have resulted in
barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and
the advent  of a  world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom
of speech  and belief  and freedom  from fear  and want  has been
proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people,
Whereas it  is essential,  if man  is not to be compelled to have
recourse, as  a last  resort, to  rebellion against  tyranny  and
oppression, that  human rights should be protected by the rule of
Whereas it  is essential  to promote  the development of friendly
relations between nations,
Whereas the  peoples of  the United  Nations have  in the Charter
reaffirmed their  faith  in  fundamental  human  rights,  in  the
dignity and  worth of the human person and in the equal rights of
men and  women and have determined to promote social progress and
better standards of life in larger freedom,
Whereas Member  States have  pledged themselves  to  achieve,  in
cooperation with  the United  Nations, the promotion of universal
respect for  and  observance  of  human  rights  and  fundamental
Whereas a common understanding of these rights and freedoms is of
the greatest importance for the full realization of this pledge,
Now, therefore,
The General Assembly
Proclaims this  Universal Declaration of Human Rights as a common
standard of  achievement for  all peoples and all nations, to the
end that  every individual  and every  organ of  society, keeping
this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and
education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by
progressive measures, national and international, to secure their
universal and  effective recognition  and observance,  both among
the peoples  of Member States themselves and among the peoples of
territories under their jurisdiction.
                            Article 1
All human  beings are  born free and equal in dignity and rights.
They are  endowed with  reason  and  conscience  and  should  act
towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
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                            Article 2
Everyone is  entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in
this Declaration,  without distinction of any kind, such as race,
color, sex,  language,  religion,  political  or  other  opinion,
national or  social origin,  property,  birth  or  other  status.
Furthermore, no  distinction shall  be made  on the  basis of the
political, jurisdictional  or international status of the country
or  territory   to  which   a  person   belongs,  whether  it  be
independent,  trust,   non-self-governing  or   under  any  other
limitation of sovereignty.
                            Article 3
Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.
                            Article 4
No one  shall be  held in  slavery or  servitude; slavery and the
slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.
                            Article 5
No one  shall be  subjected to  torture or  to cruel,  inhuman or
degrading treatment or punishment.
                            Article 6
Everyone has  the right  to recognition  everywhere as  a  person
before the law.
                            Article 7
All are  equal before  the  law  and  are  entitled  without  any
discrimination to  equal protection of the law.  All are entitled
to equal  protection against  any discrimination  in violation of
the   Declaration    and   against   any   incitement   to   such
                            Article 8
Everyone has  the right  to an  effective remedy by the competent
national tribunals  for acts  violating  the  fundamental  rights
granted him by the constitution or by law.
                            Article 9
No one  shall be  subjected to  arbitrary  arrest,  detention  or
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                           Article 10
Everyone is  entitled in  full equality  to  a  fair  and  public
hearing  by   an  independent  and  impartial  tribunal,  in  the
determination of  his rights  and obligations and of any criminal
charge against him.
                           Article 11
1.   Everyone charged  with a  penal offence  has the right to be
presumed innocent  until proved  guilty according  to  law  in  a
public trial at which he has had all the guarantees necessary for
his defence.
2.   No one  shall be held guilty of any penal offence on account
of any  act or omission which did not constitute a penal offence,
under  national   or  international  law,  at  the  time  it  was
committed.   Nor shall  a heavier penalty be imposed than the one
that was applicable at the time the penal offence was committed.
                           Article 12
No one  shall be  subjected to  arbitrary interference  with  his
privacy, family,  home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his
honour and  reputation.  Everyone has the right to the protection
of the law against such interference or attacks.
                           Article 13
1.   Everyone has  the right to freedom of movement and residence
within the borders of each state.
2.   Everyone has  the right  to leave any country, including his
own, and to return to his country.
                           Article 14
1.   Everyone has  the right  to  seek  and  to  enjoy  in  other
countries asylum from persecution.
2.   This right  may not  be invoked  in the case of prosecutions
genuinely arising from non-political crimes or from acts contrary
to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.
                           Article 15
1.   Everyone has the right to a nationality.
2.   No one  shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor
denied the right to change his nationality.
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                           Article 16
1.   Men and  women of  full age,  without any  limitation due to
race, nationality  or religion,  have the  right to  marry and to
found a  family.   They  are  entitled  to  equal  rights  as  to
marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution.
2.   Marriage shall  be entered  into only with the free and full
consent of the intending spouses.
3.   The family  is the  natural and  fundamental group  unit  of
society and is entitled to protection by society and the State.
                           Article 17
1.   Everyone has  the right  to own property alone as well as in
association with others.
2.   No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property.
                           Article 18
Everyone has  the right  to freedom  of thought,  conscience  and
religion; this  right includes  freedom to change his religion or
belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and
in public  or private,  to manifest  his religion  or  belief  in
teaching, practice, worship and observance.
                           Article 19
Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression: this
right includes  freedom to hold opinions without interference and
to seek,  receive and  impart information  and ideas  through any
media and regardless of frontiers.
                           Article 20
1.   Everyone has  the right  to freedom of peaceful assembly and
2.   No one may be compelled to belong to an association.
                           Article 21
1.   Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his
country, directly or through freely chosen representatives.
2.   Everyone has  the right of equal access to public service in
his country.
3.   The will  of the  people shall be the basis of the authority
of government;  this will  shall be  expressed  in  periodic  and
genuine elections  which shall be by universal and equal suffrage
and shall  be held  by secret  vote or  by equivalent free voting
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                           Article 22
Everyone, as  a member  of  society,  has  the  right  to  social
security and  is entitled to realization, through national effort
and  international   cooperation  and   in  accordance  with  the
organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social
and cultural  rights indispensable  for his  dignity and the free
development of his personality.
                           Article 23
1.   Everyone  has   the  right   to  work,  to  free  choice  of
employment, to  just and  favourable conditions  of work  and  to
protection against unemployment.
2.   Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal
pay for equal work.
3.   Everyone who  works has  the right  to just  and  favourable
remuneration ensuring  for himself  and his  family an  existence
worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other
means of social protection.
4.   Everyone has  the right to form and to join trade unions for
the protection of his interests.
                           Article 24
Everyone has  the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable
limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay.
                           Article 25
1.   Everyone has  the right to a standard of living adequate for
the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including
food, clothing,  housing and  medical care  and necessary  social
services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment,
sickness,  disability,  widowhood,  old  age  or  other  lack  of
livelihood in circumstances beyond his control.
2.   Motherhood and  childhood are  entitled to  special care and
assistance.   All children,  whether born  in or  out of wedlock,
shall enjoy the same social protection.
                           Article 26
1.   Everyone has  the right  to education.   Education  shall be
free,  at   least  in  the  elementary  and  fundamental  stages.
Elementary  education   shall  be   compulsory.    Technical  and
professional education  shall be  made  generally  available  and
higher education  shall be equally accessible to all on the basis
of merit.
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2.   Education shall  be directed  to the full development of the
human personality  and to  the strengthening of respect for human
rights and fundamental freedoms.  It shall promote understanding,
tolerance and  friendship among  all nations, racial or religious
groups, and  shall further  the activities  of the United Nations
for the maintenance of peace.
3.   Parents have  a prior  right to choose the kind of education
that shall be given to their children.
                           Article 27
1.   Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural
life of  the community,  to  enjoy  the  arts  and  to  share  in
scientific advancement and its benefits.
2.   Everyone has  the right  to the  protection of the moral and
material interests  resulting from  any scientific,  literary  or
artistic production of which he is the author.
                           Article 28
Everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which
the rights  and freedoms  set forth  in this  Declaration can  be
fully realized.
                           Article 29
1.   Everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free
and full development of his personality is possible.
2.   In the  exercise of  his rights and freedoms, everyone shall
be subject  only to  such limitations  as are  determined by  law
solely for  the purpose  of securing  due recognition and respect
for the  rights and  freedoms of  others and  of meeting the just
requirements of  mortality, public  order and the general welfare
in a democratic society.
3.   These rights  and freedoms  may  in  no  case  be  exercised
contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.
                           Article 30
Nothing in  this Declaration  may be  interpreted as implying for
any State, group or person any right to engage in any activity or
to perform  any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights
and freedoms set forth herein.
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