Posted by First Middle Last on October 14, 1998 at 22:42:15:
In Reply to: Re: Money + veritas/mitchell/complaint.htm posted by First Middle Last on October 14, 1998 at 22:07:50:
5. In general a corporation must contract and sue and be sued by its corporate name; 8 Jobn. R. 295; 14 John. R. 238; 19 John. R. 300; 4 Rand. R. 359;
8. As to names which have the same sound, see Bac. Ab. Misnomer, A; 7 Serg & Rawle, 479; Hammond's Analysis of Pleading, 89; 10 East. R. 83; and article Idem Sonans.
Name. 5. No man can have more than one Christian name; 1 Ld. Raym. 562; Bac. Ab. Misnomer, A; though two or more names usually ke* t separate, as John and Peter, may undoubtedly be compounded, so as to form, in contemplation of law, but one. 5 T. R. 195. A letter put between the Christian and surname, as an abbreviation of a part of the Christian name, as, John B. Peterson, is no part of either. 4 Watts' R. 329; 5 John. R. 84; 14 Pet. R. 322; 3 Pet. R. 7; 2 Cowen. 463; Co. Litt. 3 a; 1 Ld. Raym. 562; , Vin. Ab. Misnomer, C 6, pl. 5 and 6: Com. Dig. Indictment, G 1, note u; Willes, R. 654; Bac. Abr. Misnomer and Addition; 3 Chit. Pr. 164 to 173; 1 Young, R. 602. But see 7 Watts & Serg. 406.
See above: Today no one can take part in government under his or her Christian name.
Late in the afternoon of July 4, 1776, the Continental Congress “resolved, that Dr. Franklin, Mr. Adams and Mr. Jefferson be a committee to prepare a device for a Seal of the United States of America.” On August 20 the committee reported its design to Congress; but the report was tabled, and for three years and a half no further action was taken. On March 25, 1780, the report of the first committee was referred to a new committee consisting of James Lovell, John Morin Scott, and William Churchill Houston. This committee received artistic assistance from Francis Hopkinson. A new design was reported on May 10, (or 11), 1780, but debate was followed by recommital to the committee with no further progress for two more years. In the spring of 1782 a third committee, composed of Arthur Middleton, John Rutledge, and Elias Boudinot with the assistance of William Barton, A.M. reported a third design for a seal to Congress which was found not satisfactory. On June 13, 1782, Congress referred all of the committee reports to Charles Thomason, Secretary of Congress. Thomason immediately wrote his report to Congress and submitted it on June 20, 1782; the report was accepted the same day and thus the design of the great seal was fixed. It is described as follows:
ARMS. Paleways of thirteen pieces, argent and gules; a chief. azure; the escutcheon on the breast of the American eagle displayed proper, holding in his dexter talon an olive branch, and in his sinster a bundle of thirteen arrows, all proper. And in his beak a scroll, inscribed with the motto, ‘E Pluribus Unum.’
For the CREST. Over the head of the eagle, which appears above the escutcheon, a glory, or, breaking through a cloud, proper, and surrounding thirteen stars, forming a constellation, argent, on an azure field.
REVERSE. A pyramid unfinished. In the Zenith, an eye in a triangle, surrounded with a glory proper. Over the eye these words, ‘Annuit Coeptis.’ On the base of the pyramid the numerical letters MDCCLXXVI. And underneath the following motto, ‘Novus Ordo Seclorum.’ (79)
[NOVUS ORDO SECLORUM, the new secular order]
Among those who helped design the Great Seal of the United States the following are known to have been Masons: Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, William Churchill Houston, and William Barton. Whether they drew heavily upon Freemasonry in this work it is impossible to assert but when an informed Mason examines the Great Seal here is what he sees: On the obverse is an eagle whose dexter wing has thirty-two feathers, the number of ordinary degrees in Scottish Rite Freemasonry. The sinister wing has thirty-three feathers, the additional feather corresponding to the Thirty-Third Degree of the same Rite conferred for outstanding Masonic service. The tail feathers number nine, the number of degrees in the Chapter, Council, and Commandery of the York Rite of Freemasonry. Scottish Rite Masonry had its origin in France; the York Rite is sometimes called the American Rite; the eagle thus clothed represents the union of French and American Masons in the struggle for Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity. The total number of feathers in the two wings is sixty-five which, by gematria, is the value of the Hebrew phrase yam yawchod (together in unity). This phrase appears in Palms 133 as follows: “Behold, how good and how pleasant it is for brethren to dwell together in unity,” and is used in the ritual of the first degree of Freemasonry. The glory above the eagle’s head is divided into twenty-four equal parts and reminds the observer of the Mason’s gauge which is also divided into twenty-four equal parts and is emblematic of the service he is obligated to perform. The five pointed stars remind him of the Masonic Blazing Star and the five points of fellowship. The arrangement of the stars in the constellation to form overlapping equilateral triangles and the Star of David calls to the Mason’s mind King David’s dream of building a Temple, to his God, the Companions who rebuilt a desecrated Temple, and the finding of the Word that was lost. The gold, silver, and azure colors represent the sun, moon, and Worshipful Master, the first that rules the day, the second, the night, and the third, the lodge. While silver, connected with the letter Gimel or G and being surrounded on an azure ground by a golden glory, reminds the Mason of the letter G, a most conspicuous furnishing of a proper lodge room. The shield on the eagle’s breast affirms by its colors, valor (red), purity (white), and justice (blue), and reminds the Mason of the cardinal virtues. The value of these colors, by gematria, is 103, the value of the phrase ehben ha-Adam (the stone of Adam) and suggests the perfect ashlar, or squared stone, of Freemasonry. One hundred and three is also the value of the noun bonaim, a Ranbbinical word signifying “builders, Masons.” Thus the national colors spell out, by gematria, the name of the fraternity. The scroll in the eagles beak, bearing the words E Pluribus Unum (of the many) reminds him also of the unity which has made brothers of many.
On the reverse, is the All Seeing Eye within a triangle surrounded by a golden glory. Besides the obvious Masonic significance of this design, it has a cabalistic value of seventy plus three plus two hundred, equaling two hundred and seventy-three which is the value of the phrase ehben mosu habonim (the stone which the builders refused) familiar to all Royal Arch Masons. It is also the value of the Hebrew proper noun Hiram Abiff, the architect of Solomon’s Temple and the principal character of the legend used in the Master Mason degree. The triangle is isosceles, formed by two right triangles having sides of five, twelve, and thirteen units in length, illustrating the 47th Problem of Euclid. The triangle also represents the capstone of the unfinished pyramid and reminds the Mason of the immortality of the soul and that in eternity he will complete the capstone of his earthly labors according to the designs on the trestle-board of the Supreme Architect of the Universe. The unfinished pyramid cannot fail to remind him of the unfinished condition of the Temple when tragedy struck down its Masters architect.
The blaze of glory found on either side of the Great Seal cannot fail to remind the Mason of the Great Light in Masonry which is the rule and guide to faith and practice and without which no Masonic lodge can exist. It reminds him that only more light can dispel the pall of ignorance in which he stumbles until he enters tile Celestial Lodge where all light is given.
returning from this short excursion into symbolism to summarize the investigation into the possible connections that might exist between Masonry and United States government, several appear to be significant:
(1) The fundamental principles laid down for the government of the Masonic fraternity by its oldest surviving documents are found to be present in the Constitution of 1789.
(2) Many of the leading spirits in the development of a federal union were Masons.
(3) The evolution of the idea of a free public school system supported by the state was fostered by many Masons.
(4) The policy of admitting new states to the Union on a basis of complete equality with the old finds its counterpart in Masonry in the creation of new lodges equal in every respect to the position held by older lodges.
(5) A number of tile men who influenced the writing and who wrote the Constitution of 1789 were Masons well informed in Masonic philosophy, practice, and organization.
(6) Masons occupied many influential offices in the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of the government in this period of its greatest plasticity.
These points of significance lead to the conclusion that investigators in the fields of history and government have overlooked an in influence in the formation of the government of the United States that may well have been as important as the economic pressures of the age. It also appears that political theorists have overlooked an influence of major importance in the evolution of American democracy; a democracy that may be defined as much broader than a special political form, a method of conducting government by means of officials elected by popular suffrage; a democracy in which these processes are only a means, the best means so far discovered, for realizing the idealistic goals for the full development of human potentialities. This democracy is a way of life, social and individual, founded on faith in human capacity and intelligence and in the just power of accumulated and cooperative experience; and in equality before the law and in its administration and in the right to have and express opinion---a democracy whose final definition coincides with that of Freemasonry.
The fundamental pattern of Anglo-American life was now cut. It remains now to follow the pioneer westward to Texas and take note of the place Masons and Freemasonry occupied along the “trace.”
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