Posted by federal [several] States on November 07, 1998 at 03:27:52:
In Reply to: Re: United States singular, United States of America plural posted by Federal law follows the Title 4 Flag on November 06, 1998 at 23:29:27:
: : And the "several" States is synonymous with
: : the "federal" States.
: Please explian the above statement further.
: Federal is singular. Federation would be plural.
fed-er-al. [= F. federal, < L., foedus (foeder-), compact, league, akin to fides, faith.] I. a. Of or pertaining to a compact or a league, esp. a league between nations or states; also, pertaining to or of the nature of a union of states under a central government distinct from the individual goverments of the separate states (as, a federal republic; the federal government of the U.S.) [...]. The New Century Dictionary, 2 vols., (N.Y. & London: D. Appleton-Century Company, 1927-46), vol. 1.
foedus, eris, n. [fr. root of fides], aa league, treaty, charter, compact. b. Private: a compact, covenant, agreement: 2. Transf. of things: a law: Latin-English Dictionary, Chambers Murray.
federal adj. Abbr. fed. [From Latin foedus (stem foeder-), league, treaty, compact. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (1973).
confederation. An agreement or compact between two or more governments. Ballentine’s Law Dict., 2 ed., 1948.
Federal Government. The government of the United States; the government of a community of independent states, united by compact. See Piqua Bank v. Knoup, 6 Ohio St. 342, 393. Ballentine’s Law Dict., 2d ed., 1948.
Federal. Appertaining to the United States; appertaining to a community of sovereign states. See Piqua Bank v. Knoup, 6 Ohio St. 342, 393. Ballentine’s Law Dict., 2 ed., 1948.
Federal. (F.-L.). F.fédéral. Formed with suffix -al, from L. fśder-, stem of fśdus, a treaty. Akin to fides, faith.
confederate. (L.) L. confederatus, united by a convenant, pp. con-federare, -L. con- (cum), together; fśder-, crude form of fśdus, a treaty. Walter W. Skeat, The Concise Dictionary of English Etymology (Wordsworth Editions Ltd., 1993, Reprinted 1994), p. 146.
Vattel had distinguished between treaties and other international agreements as follows:
Sec. 152. A treaty, in Latin, foedus, is a compact entered into by sovereigns for the welfare of the State, either in perpetuity or for a considerable length of time.
Sec. 153. Compacts which have for their objects matters of temporary interest are called agreements, conventions, arrangements. They are fulfilled by a single act and not by a continuous performance of acts. When the act in question is performed these compacts are executed once and for all; whereas treaties are executory in character and the acts called for continue as long as the treaty lasts. Vattel, The Law of Nations or the Princples of Natural Law, p. 160, trans. Charles G. Fenwick, Washington, D.C. 1916. Edgar Bodenheimer, Jurisprudence: The Philosophy and Method of the Law (Harvard University Press, 1967), p. 284.
: : “[...] the citizens of each State shall be
: : entitled to all the privileges and immunities
: : of citizens in the federal States, [...]”
: : Annals of Congress, 8th Cong., Senate,
: : The Louisiana Treaty, p. 51, November, 1803.
: : The "several" States are the States in their
: : confederated capacity, i.e., the United States
: : of America as styled in the Articles of
: : Confederation and often referred to in
: : historical documents as "confederated states".
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