Paul Andrew Mitchell, Sui Juris
c/o General Delivery
In Propria Persona
All Rights Reserved
District Court of the United States
Eastern Judicial District of California
Plaintiff, ) NOTICE OF MOTION AND
) MOTION TO STRIKE ORDER AND
v. ) FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
) OF MAGISTRATE JUDGE ‑‑ PART II:
AOL Time Warner, Inc. et al., )
) 28 U.S.C. 1746(1)
COMES NOW Paul Andrew Mitchell, Plaintiff in the above entitled case, Citizen of California, Private Attorney General and Federal Witness, to supplement His previously filed MOTION for an ORDER striking the so-called ORDER AND FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS by U.S. Magistrate Judge Dale A. Drozd dated December 28, 2001 A.D., and to provide formal Notice to all interested Party(s) of same.
INCORPORATION OF RELATED DOCUMENT
Plaintiff now attaches “America and the International Covenant: A Research Proposal to Amnesty International” and incorporates same by reference to Attachment “A”, as if set forth fully herein. See Internet URL:
COUNTS THREE AND FOUR CAN BE PROSECUTED
BY PLAINTIFF, WITH LEAVE OF THIS COURT
This honorable Court is respectfully reminded that 18 U.S.C. 4 (misprision of felony) requires Plaintiff to report felony federal offenses to a judge of the United States. Violations of 18 U.S.C. 241, 1512 and 1513 are felonies. There is extraterritorial federal jurisdiction over violations of sections 1512 and 1513 (read “State zone”). See 1512(g) and 1513(d).
Plaintiff believes that COUNTS THREE AND FOUR were required to satisfy His legal obligations under 18 U.S.C. 4. Violations of section 242 (misdemeanors) are a condition predicate to alleging a conspiracy to deprive fundamental Rights in violation of section 241. Thus, to satisfy this separate legal requirement, Plaintiff alleged section 242 violations in COUNT THREE, and section 241 violations in COUNT FOUR, respectively.
Prior to filing the Initial COMPLAINT, Plaintiff did investigate the issue of standing to prosecute alleged violations of 18 U.S.C. 241 and 242. During that investigation, Plaintiff did confirm that the courts have uniformly held that these statutes provide no basis for civil liability. For example, see Agnew v. Compton, 239 F.2d 226 (9th Cir. 1956); and Robinson v. Overseas Military Sales, 21 F.3d 502 (2nd Cir. 1994). Similar results obtain for 18 U.S.C. 1512 and 1513.
With these cases in mind, Plaintiff properly reserved His fundamental Right to petition this honorable Court for leave, as a qualified Private Attorney General, to prosecute criminally these and other COUNTS against all Defendants to which they are applicable, but only after formal discovery reveals the full extent of the violation(s) alleged in Plaintiff’s Initial COMPLAINT, and after civil verdicts and final judgments are reached. See Initial COMPLAINT, Page 32 of 43, lines 16‑21. Plaintiff also incorporated this reservation in COUNT FOUR (Page 34 of 43, line 12). Evidently, Mr. Drozd overlooked this timely and proper reservation.
PLAINTIFF HAS NO STANDING
TO SUE UNDER 42 U.S.C. 1983
Plaintiff resorted to 18 U.S.C. 241 and 242, because the only other statutory remedy for treaty violations appears to be 42 U.S.C. 1983. However, rights under 42 U.S.C. 1983 are for citizens of the United States (“federal citizens”), and not for Citizens of the several States of the Union. See Wadleigh v. Newhall, 136 F. 941 (C.C. Cal. 1905).
There are two (2) classes of citizens under American law never repealed. Federal citizens were not even contemplated when Article III was being drafted. Pannill v. Roanoke, 252 F. 910, 914 is definitive and dispositive on this important point. Federal citizenship is a municipal franchise domiciled in the District of Columbia. Murphy v. Ramsey, 114 U.S. 15 (1885) (the political rights of federal citizens are franchises which they hold as privileges in the legislative discretion of Congress).
Clearly, given the municipal nature of section 1983 supra, and given the absence of any private right of action to prosecute sections 241 or 242, Plaintiff is thereby deprived of equal protection of the law ‑‑ a Right which is expressly guaranteed by the Covenant.
Federal citizens have a civil cause of action for violations of the Covenant, but State Citizens do not have the same right.
Moreover, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights was enacted by Congress with specific Reservations. See Internet URL:
Those Reservations expressly stipulate that this Covenant is “not self‑executing.” See Declarations (2), 87 C.J.S. secs. 9-17, pgs. 641‑648. It necessarily follows that Plaintiff is required to enforce this treaty using whatever statutory remedies are appropriate and available.
Absent standing under 42 U.S.C. 1983, Plaintiff concluded that the criminal statutes at 18 U.S.C. 241 and 242 are presently the only federal remedies which can be invoked when a Citizen of California is deprived of Rights guaranteed by that Covenant. See Re Grand Jury, 26 F. 749 (DCUS Oregon 1886), as correctly cited in Plaintiff’s Initial COMPLAINT.
As a signatory to the Covenant, the United States has agreed to ensure that any person, whose rights or freedoms as therein recognized are violated, shall have an effective remedy notwithstanding that the violation has been committed by persons acting in an official capacity; and, the United States has agreed to ensure that competent authorities shall enforce such remedies when granted. See Part II, Article 2, Sections 3(a) & (c). The term “shall” as used therein has a mandatory, imperative meaning.
Plaintiff shudders to think that these important Human Rights Treaties are, in the final analysis, merely lip service by our federal lawmakers.
THE LACK OF A CIVIL REMEDY
CALLS FOR DECLARATORY RELIEF
The violations of Plaintiff’s fundamental Right to equal protection of the law are a matter which properly should be addressed in a declaratory judgment, at least.
Plaintiff is entirely justified in exploiting the Petition Clause in the U.S. Constitution to highlight the unequal protection which handicaps State Citizens when they seek to redress violations of the Covenant, and of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
The Right to Petition Government encompasses the act of filing a suit to draw attention to issues of broader public interest or political significance:
The authorities make it clear that the right of petition protects attempts to obtain redress through the institution of judicial proceedings as well as through importuning executive officials and the Legislature. It is equally apparent that the right encompasses the act of filing a lawsuit solely to obtain monetary compensation for individualized wrongs, as well as filing suit to draw attention to issues of broader public interest or political significance.
[City of Long Beach v. Bozek, 31 Cal.3d 527, 533-534 (1982)]
[bold emphasis added]
Accordingly, in addition to His obligations under 18 U.S.C. 4, Plaintiff also charged COUNTS THREE AND FOUR specifically to draw attention to the current American laws which require Plaintiff to request leave (or “permission”) to prosecute His claims to having been repeatedly deprived of Rights guaranteed by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and by the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.
Obviously, this leave or permission can be denied, rendering enforcement of these treaties a matter for judicial discretion, and not a matter of enforceable, fundamental Right.
To reiterate a crucial point, this limitation highlights the all important differences between legislative courts and constitutional courts. The guarantees of the U.S. Constitution extend to legislative courts only as such courts make those guarantees applicable, proceeding in legislative mode (paraphrasing Hooven & Allison v. Evatt, 325 U.S. 652 (1945): the guaranties [sic] of the Constitution extend to the federal zone only as Congress makes those guaranties applicable, by statutes).
Even if leave were denied, Plaintiff argues that a proper declaratory judgment, consistent with Plaintiff’s analysis above, is His procedural Right specifically to draw attention to the equal protection violation(s) which State Citizens must currently endure in federal legislative courts. Plaintiff argues that these violations are matters of grave public interest and obvious political significance. City of Long Beach supra.
Now, compare 42 U.S.C. 1988, which authorizes importation of a State’s common law whenever no federal remedy exists. However, there is serious disagreement in the federal courts concerning the standing of State Citizens to invoke any Title 42 remedies, in part because these remedies originate in the 1866 Civil Rights Act ‑‑ a federal municipal statute. State Citizens are not subject to federal municipal law.
To illustrate this disagreement, the second subdivision of 42 U.S.C. 1985 gives a cause of action to any person injured in the course of an alleged conspiracy. Kelly v. Foreman, 384 F.Supp. 1352 (S.D. Tex. 1974).
The Ninth Circuit has held that actions under 42 U.S.C. 1985 are derived from the Thirteenth Amendment banning slavery, and cover all deprivations of equal protection and of equal Privileges and Immunities, regardless of their source. See Privileges and Immunities Clause; Gillespie v. Civiletti, 629 F.2d 637 (9th Cir. Wash. 1980).
And, Article 16 of the Covenant also guarantees that everyone shall have the right to recognition everywhere as a “person” before the law. An identical guarantee is found at Article 6 in the Declaration.
Nevertheless, the USDC in Pennsylvania has ruled that the term “person” within 42 U.S.C. 1985 is subject to the same analysis that is used to interpret that term as used in section 1983. See Flesch v. Eastern Pennsylvania Psychiatric Institute, 434 F.Supp. 963 (E.D. Penna. 1977).
Remember, Wadleigh v. Newhall held that section 1983 is for federal citizens only.
As a Citizen of California who is not also a federal citizen, by right of election (read “freedom of choice”), Plaintiff is deprived of equal protection of the law to the extent that no private rights of action are available for State Citizens to enforce alleged violations of the Declaration or the Covenant.
The subtlety and salience of these equal protection violations were lost entirely on Magistrate Dale A. Drozd.
UNFAIR COMPETITION CAN BE REDRESSED
BY CALIFORNIA STATE LAW(S) AND COMMON LAW
Plaintiff has already dispatched the specious written analysis of Plaintiff’s Lanham Act claim by Magistrate Dale A. Drozd. (See Part I of the instant MOTION, and the Initial COMPLAINT, Page 35 of 42, lines 5‑7.) To argue that Plaintiff’s COUNT FIVE is “vague and conclusory” is similarly flawed.
Plaintiff has stated a claim upon which relief can be granted for unfair competition under California State law(s), whether or not that claim should be clarified or expanded in any amended COMPLAINT(s).
In many ways, Plaintiff’s COUNT TWO forms the hub of His COMPLAINT, due in part to the deliberate removal of His “Shareware Policy” from the vast majority of modified derivatives of the subject book, and due in part to many other unauthorized alterations and misrepresentations that are found in those derivatives. Congress now calls them “counterfeits”.
See Anticounterfeiting Consumer Protection Act of 1996 (“ACPA”); 18 U.S.C. 1961-1964(c); Two Pesos, Inc. v. Taco Cabana, Inc., 505 U.S. 763, 767‑68 (1992).
Mr. Drozd himself failed to notice the omission of Plaintiff’s “Shareware Policy” in its entirety from Exhibit “B”.
State law remedies can, and should, be invoked to supplement the remedies available to Plaintiff under the federal Lanham Act:
1. Section 43(a) of the Lanham Act ... creates a federal cause of action for infringement of unregistered marks. The common-law tort of unfair competition allows a similar cause of action to prevent confusion between parties’ products. To prevail under either theory, plaintiff must prove (1) it owns a valid, protectable servicemark and (2) defendants’ service is so similar to plaintiff’s it is likely to cause consumer confusion. ...
4. The purpose of the Lanham Act is to secure to the owner of the mark the goodwill of a business use and to protect the ability of consumers to distinguish among competing producers. The Lanham Act is further intended to make actionable the deceptive and misleading use of marks and to protect persons engaged in commerce against unfair competition.
[Scholfield Auto Plaza, L.L.C. v. Carganza, Inc.]
[Kansas Court of Appeals, No. 78,289 (1999)]
[bold emphasis added]
For example, to the extent that sections 17200 et seq. of the California Business and Professions Code are determined to be inappropriate to supplement, or unnecessarily duplicative of, Plaintiff’s COUNT TWO claims of unfair competition, Plaintiff is entirely within His procedural rights to amend the Initial COMPLAINT, at least once, with the addition or substitution of claims that His common-law right of publicity was violated.
California recognizes both a statutory right and a common law right of publicity. See Midler v. Ford Motor Company, 849 F.2d 460 (9th Cir. 1988), and California Civil Code section 3344: Unauthorized commercial use of name, voice, signature, photograph or likeness:
The statute, however, does not preclude Midler from pursuing any cause of action she may have at common law; the statute itself implies that such common law causes of action do exist because it says its remedies are merely “cumulative.”
At a subsequent trial, the jury returned a verdict for Midler and awarded her $400,000 in damages. The Ninth Circuit affirmed that award. Cert. den. 503 U.S. 951 (1992): “[D]efendants here for their own profit in selling their product did appropriate part of her identity.” “[T]he sellers have appropriated what is not theirs and have committed a tort in California.”
The difference between a Lanham Act claim, and a claim for breaching the right of publicity, is demonstrated in Wendt v. Host International, Inc., 125 F.3d 806 (9th Cir. 1997), cert. den. 121 S.Ct. 33 (2000):
A common law cause of action for appropriation of name or likeness may be pleaded by alleging (1) the defendant’s use of the plaintiff’s identity; (2) the appropriation of plaintiff’s name or likeness to defendant’s advantage, commercially or otherwise; (3) lack of consent; and (4) resulting injury.
In a pertinent case, defendants violated Kareem Abdul‑Jabbar’s trademark and publicity rights by using his former name ‑‑ Lew Alcindor ‑‑ in a television commercial aired during the 1993 NCAA men’s basketball tournament. See Abdul-Jabbar v. General Motors Corp., 85 F.3d 407 (9th Cir. 1996). Plaintiff and Kareem Abdul‑Jabbar were in the same graduating class at UCLA (1970); Plaintiff remembers encountering Lew Alcindor on Bruin Walk, near the UCLA Student Union.
Individual’s decision to use name other than birth name, whether decision rests on religious, marital, or other personal considerations, does not imply intent to set aside birth name, or identity associated with that name.
Unlike trademark, proper name cannot be deemed abandoned throughout possessor’s life, despite his failure to use it, or continue to use it, commercially.
[Montana v. San Jose Mercury News, Inc.]
[40 Cal.Rptr.2d 639, 34 Cal.Appl.4th 790]
The right of publicity is not necessarily reserved for celebrities. In KNB Enterprises v. Matthews, 78 Cal.App.4th 362, 92 Cal.Rptr.2d 713 (2000), the California Court of Appeals explained that section 3344 protects celebrities and non‑celebrities alike.
On a more fundamental level, it is apparent that the federal Lanham Act was not really discovered by litigants until after the Act of June 25, 1948. Pursuant to 28 U.S.C. 132, the latter Act effectively broadcasted a federal legislative tribunal ‑‑ the United States District Court (“USDC”) ‑‑ into every State of the Union some two years after the Lanham Act was enacted.
However, that Act did not abolish the constitutional District Court of the United States (“DCUS”) inside the several States of the Union. At most, the substitution of the USDC for the DCUS inside the States was attempted surreptitiously ‑‑ via rule changes allegedly promulgated by the U.S. Supreme Court, pursuant to 28 U.S.C. 2072.
Plaintiff has now properly and timely challenged the constitutionality of section 2072(b), for violating the ex post facto prohibition and the Separation of Powers Doctrine in the U.S. Constitution. All legislative powers are vested in the Congress of the United States (and none in the U.S. Supreme Court). Plaintiff has deliberately chosen this constitutional Court over a federal legislative court.
Thus, to date, all federal cases under the Lanham Act appear to have originated in the legislative USDC, contrary to the grant of original jurisdiction to the constitutional DCUS found at 60 Stat. 440 (correctly cited in Plaintiff’s Initial COMPLAINT). Mr. Drozd has acknowledged that Plaintiff’s citation is correct (at the preliminary “hearing” on December 14, 2001 A.D.) Title 15, U.S.C., has never been enacted into positive law, requiring that this Court resort to the Statutes at Large to confirm jurisdiction of the subject matter.
Accordingly, even the U.S. Supreme Court has committed systematic and fatal errors, to the extent that its Lanham Act opinions originated in federal district courts lacking jurisdiction of the subject matter.
This is also painfully true of U.S. Supreme Court cases holding that Congress cannot amend the Lanham Act to abrogate the States’ sovereign immunity under the Eleventh Amendment. See the Trademark Remedy Clarification Act, 106 Stat. 3567, 15 U.S.C. 1125(a)(2) (1992); and the Copyright Remedy Clarification Act, 17 U.S.C. 511.
In particular, see Justice Breyer’s dissent in College Savings Bank v. Florida Prepaid Postsecondary Education Expense Board, 527 U.S. 666 (1999). This case originated in the United States District Court (“USDC”) of New Jersey, U.S. District Judge Garrett E. Brown, Jr. presiding (see “Memorandum Opinion” dated December 13, 1996, by Judge Brown).
The dissent by Justice Stevens in Florida Prepaid Postsecondary Education Expense Board v. College Savings Bank et al., No. 98-531 (1999) is also quite revealing. Referring to the holding in Seminole Tribe of Florida v. Florida, 517 U.S. 44 (1996), Justice Stevens wrote, “The full reach of that case’s dramatic expansion of the judge-made doctrine of sovereign immunity is unpredictable ....” [bold emphasis added] Justice Stevens added, “[T]he defense of sovereign immunity will deprive some patentees of property without due process of law.” [bold emphasis added] Obviously, judge-made doctrines are incompatible with due process of law.
“[T]he current state of the [case] law leaves the protection afforded to patent and trademark holders dependant on the status of the infringing party. A public school such as UCLA can sue a private school such as USC for patent infringement, yet USC cannot sue UCLA for the same act.” Senate Report No. 102-280, p. 9 (1992) [brackets and bold emphasis added].
By logical extension of this judge-made doctrine, then, as a Citizen of California Plaintiff can sue a private school such as USC, yet Plaintiff cannot sue UCLA (or UCI) for the same act. This conclusion necessarily implicates yet another violation of Plaintiff’s fundamental Right to equal protection.
Legislative courts create judge-made doctrines!
Similarly, federal circuit cases suffer the same fatality, if they originated in the USDC. A pertinent example is AT&T v. Winback and Conserve Program, Inc., 42 F.3d 1421 (3rd Cir. 1994) (a principal may be liable under Section 43(a) of the Lanham Act for its agents’ foreseeable unauthorized false designations of origin upon which a thirty party reasonably relies).
Other examples include U-Haul Int’l v. Jartran, Inc., 601 F.Supp. 1140, 1148-49 (USDC Ariz. 1984), aff’d 793 F.2d 1034 (9th Cir. 1986); Brookfield Comm. v. West Coast Entertainment, 174 F.3d 1036 (9th Cir. 1999); and Hoffman v. Capital Cities/ABC, Inc., 2001 U.S. App. LEXIS 15085 (9th Cir. July 6, 2001).
Jurisdiction can be raised at any time. Exactly to what extent such cases are reliable authorities ‑‑ to provide valuable guidance to this honorable Court ‑‑ remains an open question.
Insofar as federal court authorities are inappropriate to the instant case, which has convened the correct court for Lanham Act litigation (under COUNT TWO), Plaintiff is justified in seeking supplemental authorities in California State law that elucidate effective judicial remedies for unfair competition and/or related common-law torts. See 28 U.S.C. 1652 (State laws as rules of decision); California Civil Code section 22.2 (the common law is the rule of decision in California).
The Kansas case cited above is, then, a reliable court authority because it originated in a State court and not in the USDC. States have concurrent jurisdiction over Lanham Act claims:
Remedies against trademark infringement and unfair competition are available to trademark owners under both state and Federal law. ... Existing legal precedent accepts electronic transmission of data as a service and, thus, as a valid trademark use for the purpose of creating and maintaining a trademark. Additionally, existing legal precedent applies the available remedies for infringement and unfair competition to such acts occurring through the unauthorized use of trademarks electronically. ... State and common law unfair competition provisions include such torts as passing off and dilution [fn 8].
[“Intellectual Property and the National Information]
[Infrastructure: The Report of the Working Group]
[on Intellectual Property Rights,” by Bruce A. Lehman]
[September 1995: http://www.lectlaw.com/files/inp12.htm]
At his footnote 15, author Bruce A. Lehman makes a telling comment that “confusion, if not on the part of the bulletin board users, is inevitable on the part of third parties who may see the copied games [or books] after they enter the stream of commerce.” [brackets and bold emphasis added]
Plaintiff’s allegation, whether amended or not, is more than sufficient basis upon which to sustain a cause of action under California’s unfair competition laws, and/or California’s prohibition against unauthorized use of name or likeness.
Likewise, Plaintiff reserves His Right to amend the Initial COMPLAINT to expand COUNTS TWO and FIVE to include allegations of false advertising (by omission of material facts), and dilution of Plaintiff’s trademark in “The Federal Zone.” That trademark was rendered famous by widespread albeit unlawful dissemination via the Internet, and also by the concurring opinion of Justice Kennedy in U.S. v. Lopez. See Initial COMPLAINT, Page 7 of 43, lines 27-30; 15 U.S.C. 1125(a)(1)(B) and the Trademark Dilution Act, section 1125(c) (both uncodified).
Registration at either the federal or State level is not necessary to create or maintain ownership rights in a trademark. Priority of trademark rights is based upon first use of the mark.
Consumers were deceived by Defendants’ false advertising, and Plaintiff lost sales as a direct result of their false advertising. The facts as alleged in Plaintiff’s verified COMPLAINT leave no doubt that probable causes exist to charge these violations as well.
To constitute false advertising, a statement in an advertisement not only must be false, it must be “material” in that “it is likely to influence purchase decisions” [or decisions not to purchase a published book because an electronic version, posted on the Internet without the author’s permission, is made to appear free of charge by unlawful acts of the Defendants]. See National Basketball Association v. Motorola, Inc., 105 F.3d 841, 855 (2nd Cir. 1997).
Dilution has already been alleged in Plaintiff’s Initial COMPLAINT at COUNT ONE, Page 28 of 43, lines 19-23 (“... Defendants’ coordinated actions jointly and severally saturated the market for the subject book ... by effecting diluting to zero the real economic demand for authentic editions of the subject book”).
Plaintiff’s COUNT FIVE is proper, cumulative in the context of COUNTS ONE thru FOUR, and does state a valid claim upon which relief can be granted by this honorable Court, with or without amendments to the Initial COMPLAINT.
I, Paul Andrew Mitchell, Sui Juris, Plaintiff in the above entitled action, hereby verify under penalty of perjury, under the laws of the United States of America, without the “United States” (federal government), that the above statement of facts and laws is true and correct, according to the best of My current information, knowledge, and belief, so help me God, pursuant to 28 U.S.C. 1746(1).
Dated: January 31, 2002 A.D.
Signed: /s/ Paul Andrew Mitchell
Printed: Paul Andrew Mitchell, B.A., M.S., Sui Juris
Plaintiff In Propria Persona (not “Pro Se”)
I, Paul Andrew Mitchell, Sui Juris, hereby certify, under penalty of perjury, under the laws of the United States of America, without the “United States” (federal government), that I am at least 18 years of age, a Citizen of ONE OF the United States of America, and that I personally served the following document(s):
NOTICE OF MOTION AND
by placing one true and correct copy of said document(s) in first class United States Mail, with postage prepaid and properly addressed to the following:
Clerk of Court (2 copies)
District Court of the United States
501 “I” Street, Suite 4-200
Courtesy copies to:
Judge Alex Kozinski
Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals
P.O. Box 91510
Ropers, Majeski, Kohn & Bentley DeForest & Koscelnik
(failed to exhibit oaths) (failed to exhibit oath)
1001 Marshall Street 3000 Koppers Building
Redwood City 94063 436 Seventh Avenue
CALIFORNIA, USA Pittsburgh 15219
Murphy Austin Adams Schoenfeld LLP Pillsbury Winthrop LLP
(failed to exhibit oaths) (failed to exhibit oaths)
P.O. Box 1319 400 Capitol Mall, Suite 1700
Sacramento 95812-1319 Sacramento 95814-4419
CALIFORNIA, USA CALIFORNIA, USA
Curiale Dellaverson Hirschfeld Quinn Emanuel Urquhart Oliver
Kraemer & Sloan, LLP & Hedges, LLP
(oaths requested) (oaths requested)
727 Sansome Street 201 Sansome Street, 6th Floor
San Francisco 94111 San Francisco 94104
CALIFORNIA, USA CALIFORNIA, USA
Office of the General Counsel Paul Southworth
University of California 2018 N. New Hampshire Ave.
1111 Franklin Street, 8th Floor Los Angeles 90027
Oakland 94607-5200 CALIFORNIA, USA
P.O. Box 1551
Beaver Falls 15010
Dated: January 31, 2002 A.D.
Signed: /s/ Paul Andrew Mitchell
Printed: Paul Andrew Mitchell, Plaintiff In Propria Persona
(not “Pro Se” [sic])
Paul Andrew Mitchell, B.A., M.S.
Private Attorney General
June 18, 2001 A.D.
America and the International Covenant:
A Research Proposal to Amnesty International
Paul Andrew Mitchell, B.A., M.S.
Private Attorney General
June 18, 2001 A.D.
All Rights Reserved
Dear Amnesty International,
I have been a human rights activist, specializing
in American constitutional law for the past 11 years.
During that period of time, we have been forced
to admit that American courts, particularly the
federal courts, are woefully ignorant of the
fundamental Rights embodied in the International
Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. The same
can, and should, be said about Congress as a whole.
We are writing to inquire as to your interest
in funding a modest research project, to gather
and analyze any State and federal court cases which
have even considered the Covenant as a Law to
be honored and enforced everywhere in America.
It is interesting that this treaty is the supreme
Law of our Land. In the 19th century, a federal
court ruled that Congress can provide punishment
for its infraction, on the deprivation of, or
injury to, rights secured by a treaty.
See Re Grand Jury, 26 F. 749 (DCUS Or. 1886).
However the only statutes we can find which Citizens
can use to enforce the Covenant, are the penal
statutes at 18 U.S.C. 241 and 242:
The courts have consistently ruled, however, that
these penal statutes create no basis for civil
liability, and create no private right of action.
This means that private State Citizens cannot sue
anyone for violating these statutes and yet,
they penalize ANY deprivation of ANY rights
guaranteed by the U.S. Constitution, which also
embraces treaties under the Supremacy Clause.
Since the International Covenant on Civil and
Political Rights is the supreme Law of our Land,
just like the Bill of Rights, it is clear that
18 U.S.C. 241/242 are the proper statutes to cite,
whenever a Covenant violation must be charged.
There is an important exception in the statutes
have ruled that these statutes are strictly
municipal laws which create standing ONLY for
federal citizens (read "citizens of the
District of Columbia, Guam, Virgin Islands,
Puerto Rico, and American Samoa"). Obviously,
only a very small percentage of Americans are
federal citizens, by birth or by choice.
At the very least, then, this is a blatant violation
of the principle of equal protection, a principle
which is expressly embodied in the Covenant,
as well as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
This leads me to my next important point:
These court decisions mean that the U.S. government
reserves to itself the prerogative of prosecuting
violations of these 2 penal statutes.
If the violations are committed by U.S. government
personnel against American Citizens, then the U.S.
government usually declines to prosecute. A good
example is the damage a corrupt federal judge can
inflict, under color of "judicial immunity,"
particularly when that judge lacks jurisdiction
over the subject matter.
The British common law tradition is that a judge
does not enjoy judicial immunity unless s/he first
has jurisdiction over the subject matter at hand.
Our current system has now evolved into one in
which federal judges enjoy judicial immunity
NO MATTER WHAT! Is it any wonder that our
incarceration rate is now so high?
If you would like to review some of our litigation,
we have published almost all pleadings in our
Supreme Law Library, at Internet URL:
A good example of our best litigation to date
is Gilbertson's OPENING BRIEF to the 8th Circuit
Court of Appeals, in St. Louis, Missouri:
Highlights of the latest updates to the Supreme
Law Library are listed at:
The People's recent application for intervention
in USA v. Konicov is illuminating, particularly at
point (7) in:
Another application by the People for intervention will
provide more meaning to the term "federal citizen":
Please give this informal proposal your earnest
and timely consideration.
We would like to commence this research project
without further delay, because we have members
of our email list who will benefit immediately
from this research, but who cannot fund it
We are confident that many Americans will be
quite interested in our findings, and it may
motivate them to become passionate Human Rights
advocates, as well.
/s/ Paul Andrew Mitchell
Counselor at Law, Federal Witness,
Private Attorney General, Author
and Webmaster, Supreme Law Library
# # #